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K12 LibreTexts

Back Matter

  • Page ID
    440
  • Glossary

    UNIT 1

    divine right – the monarchy’s belief that their power was given to them by the authority of god

    limited government – to ensure freedoms of the citizens, policy restricts the power of governmental officials

    constitution – document stating the major principles and structures of our government

    UNIT 2

    rule of law –concept that individuals, including political leaders, must adhere to laws

    amendment – to modify or add, specifically referring to an addition to the U.S. Constitution

    double-jeopardy – does not allow an individual to be tried twice for the same criminal episode

    self-incrimination – giving information about oneself that is likely to implicate oneself in a crime

    federalism – a national centralized government and a collection of smaller state governments share power between them

    popular sovereignty – power given to the individuals

    checks and balances – a system in which limits are placed on functions of government so no one part becomes too powerful

    separation of powers – the division of power between the branches of government. Done to guarantee that power does not rest with just one branch

    republicanism – government in which representatives are chosen as leader

    UNIT 3

    unitary system – power and authority is centralized in one political body

    confederation – a system in which a variety of countries, people, or groups merge as an alliance

    parliamentary system – political system in which a single legislative body, known as parliament, makes and carries out the laws

    legislative – law making branch of government

    executive – administration of the laws branch of government

    judicial system – administration of justice through the court

    UNIT 4

    Congress – legislative body of the United States

    bureaucracy – the non-elective governmental bodies that manage operations of the government

    judicial review – power of the courts to examine the constitutionality of laws

    jurisdiction – authority the court has over particular cases or territories

    bicameral - two houses or chambers in a legislative body

    due process – the application of the law and legal principles for all citizens ensuring fair treatment

    UNIT 5

    policy – actions or procedures approved by the government

    revenue – income raised by the government

    expenditure – costs acquired by the government

    regulations – rules and standards set by the government

    fiscal policy – government procedures that apply to spending and collection of revenue

    monetary policy – government procedures that relate to the money supply

    foreign aid – financial aid given to other countries

    UNIT 6

    apportionment – a procedure for determining the number of representatives in the U.S. House of Representatives based on state’s population

    census – a count of the population conducted every ten years

    judicial activism – practice of issuing judicial rulings that affect national policies

    judicial restraint – practice of avoiding making judicial rulings related to social or political issues

    lobbying – process of working to influence the decisions of political leaders

    gerrymandering – the process of creating political districts that gives one political party a majority in a territory

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