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12.15: Biosphere

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    Is Earth a living organism?

    Most scientists agree that the Earth itself is not a living thing. However, the Earth does have some aspects of life. Some scientists argue that the Earth maintains homeostasis, a stable state, just like a living organisms.

    The Biosphere

    The highest level of ecological organization is the biosphere. It is the part of Earth, including the air, land, surface rocks, and water, where life is found. Parts of the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere make up the biosphere. The lithosphere is the outermost layer of the Earth's crust; essentially land is part of the lithosphere. The hydrosphere is composed of all the areas that contain water, which can be found on, under, and over the surface of Earth. The atmosphere is the layer of gas that surrounds the planet. The biosphere includes the area from about 11,000 meters below sea level to 15,000 meters above sea level. It overlaps with the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. Land plants and animals are found on the lithosphere, freshwater and marine plants and animals are found in the hydrosphere, and birds and other flying animals are found in the atmosphere. Of course, there are countless bacteriaprotists, and fungi that are also found in the biosphere.

    Is the Biosphere Living?

    The Gaia hypothesis states that the biosphere is its own living organism. The hypothesis suggests that the Earth is self-regulating and tends to achieve a stable state, known as homeostasis. For example the composition of our atmosphere stays fairly consistent, providing the ideal conditions for life. When carbon dioxide levels increase in the atmosphere, plants grow more quickly. As their growth continues, they remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. In this way, the amount of carbon dioxide stays fairly constant without human intervention.

    For a better understanding of how the biosphere works and various dysfunctions related to human activity, scientists have simulated the biosphere in small-scale models. Biosphere 2 (Figure below) is a laboratory in Arizona that contains 3.15 acres of closed ecosystems. Ecosystems of Biosphere 2 are an ocean ecosystem with a coral reef, mangrove wetlands, a tropical rainforest, a savannah grassland and a fog desert. See for additional information.

    Additional biosphere projects include BIOS-3, a closed ecosystem in Siberia, and Biosphere J, located in Japan.

    Biosphere 2 is a laboratory that contains acres of various ecosystems
    Figure \(\PageIndex{1}\): Biosphere 2, in Arizona, contains 3.15 acres of closed ecosystem and is a small-scale model of the biosphere.


    • The biosphere is the part of the Earth, including the air, land, surface rocks, and water, where you can find life.
    • The Gaia hypothesis states that the biosphere is its own living organism

    Explore More

    Use the resource below to answer the questions that follow.

    1. How do living organisms affect different parts of the biosphere?
    2. Where is the greatest density of plant growth found on land?
    3. Where are the highest chlorophyll (pigment in chloroplast that absorbs light energy during photosynthesis) levels observed?
    4. Why are measurements of chlorophyll and land vegetation important to scientists?


    1. What is the biosphere?
    2. Distinguish between the lithosphere, atmosphere and hydrosphere.
    3. Give an example of how Earth is self-regulating.

    This page titled 12.15: Biosphere is shared under a CC BY-NC license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by CK-12 Foundation via source content that was edited to the style and standards of the LibreTexts platform; a detailed edit history is available upon request.

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