An intransitive verb has no complement (noun phrase or adjectival). Though an intransitive verb requires nothing more than a subject, it is often accompanied by adverbial information. In fact, a handful of intransitive verbs, such as reside, sneak, and glance, require an adverbial of place in order to be complete.
- (subject)+(intransitive verb)
Subject Intransitive The children Wept My dog Sleeps
- (subject)+(intransitive verb)+(optional adverbial)
Subject Intransitive Optional adverbial The children Played On the jungle gym The meeting Concluded Without a hitch My dog Snores Loudly
Identify the subject, intransitive verb, and optional adverbial (if present) of each sentence.
- We went to the bowling alley on Friday.
- Mr. Billingsworth laughed at the antics of the class clown.
- The ambassadors from Albania arrived.
- Rosa walked to the park.
- The party of boy scouts rested.
All transitive verbs have a subject and take one or more complements. Furthermore, all transitive verbs have one complement in common—the direct object, which receives the action of the verb.
- (subject)+(transitive verb)+(direct object [NP])
Subject Transitive Direct object [NP] The children Kicked The ball My dog Chews The furniture The professor Answered The question
- (subject)+(transitive verb)+(direct object [NP])+(indirect object [NP])
Subject Transitive Indirect object [NP] Direct object [NP] The students Bought Their teacher A present My dog Brought Me The tennis ball The professor Called Himself A genius
- (subject)+(transitive verb)+(direct object [NP])+(object complement [NP])
Subject Transitive Direct object [NP] Object complement [NP] The child Named Her cat Charlie I Make My living The hard way
- (subject)+(transitive verb)+(direct object [NP])+(object complement [adj.])
Subject Transitive Direct object [NP] Object complement [NP] The children Painted The fence White The teacher Made The test Easy
Identify the subject, transitive verb, and direct object of the sentence. If applicable, identify the indirect object or object complement as well.
- Mrs. Nakamura considers her hometown beautiful.
- Before setting out on the road trip, I put air in my tires.
- Joyce gave her father a gift card for Christmas.
- He hadn’t broken his promise.
- The voters elected Mr. Thompson mayor.