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13.3: Nails and Hair

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    Would you believe this is a close-up of your hair and scalp?

    Well maybe not yours. But some other person's. Hair is an integral part of the integumentary system. And although many people may lose some or all of the hair on top of their head, they still have hair on their arms and legs that perform important functions.

    Nails and Hair

    In addition to the skin, the integumentary system includes the nails and hair. Like the skin, these organs help the body maintain homeostasis.


    Fingernails and toenails consist of specialized epidermal cells that are filled with keratin. The keratin makes them tough and hard, which is important for the functions they serve. Fingernails prevent injury by forming protective plates over the ends of the fingers. They also enhance sensation by acting as a counterforce to the sensitive fingertips when objects are handled. Nails are similar to claws in other animals. They cover the tips of fingers and toes. Fingernails and toenails both grow from nail beds. As the nail grows, more cells are added at the nail bed. Older cells get pushed away from the nail bed and the nail grows longer. There are no nerve endings in the nail. Otherwise cutting your nails would hurt a lot!


    Hair is one of the defining characteristics of mammals. Its main component is keratin. A hair shaft consists of dead, keratin-filled cells that overlap each other like the shingles on a roof (see Figure below). Like roof shingles, the overlapping cells help shed water from the hair.


    Shaft of Human Hair. This shaft of hair is magnified to show its overlapping cells.

    Hair helps to insulate and protect the body. Head hair is especially important in preventing heat loss from the body. Eyelashes and eyebrows protect the eyes from water, dirt, and other irritants. Hairs in the nose trap dust particles and microorganisms in the air and prevent them from reaching the lungs. Hair also provides sensory input when objects brush against it or it sways in moving air.

    f-d_b0ee7e92757497f9878db3b2cb5b29b4f9143d35208f4e03cc020e01+IMAGE_THUMB_POSTCARD_TINY+IMAGE_THUMB_POSTCARD_TINY.pngHair, hair follicle, and oil glands. The oil, called sebum, helps to prevent water loss from the skin. The sebaceous gland secretes sebum, which waterproofs the skin and hair.


    • Nails and hair contain mostly keratin. They protect the body and enhance the sense of touch.


    1. A certain disease causes the loss of all body hair. How might homeostasis of the body be disturbed by the absence of hair? (Hint: What are the functions of hair?)
    Image Reference Attributions
    f-d_6373ee8078e996334330a6c8777e6e945fa85e76c2c1cb32d9230431+IMAGE_TINY+IMAGE_TINY.jpg [Figure 1] License: CC BY-NC
    f-d_320ed95cc67df1cad91df53086a39f18c935bb459f81f784640bb021+IMAGE_THUMB_SMALL_TINY+IMAGE_THUMB_SMALL_TINY.jpg [Figure 2] Credit: Jan Homann
    License: Public Domain
    f-d_b0ee7e92757497f9878db3b2cb5b29b4f9143d35208f4e03cc020e01+IMAGE_THUMB_SMALL_TINY+IMAGE_THUMB_SMALL_TINY.png [Figure 3] Credit: Courtesy of the National Institutes of Health, User:Tsaitgaist/Wikimedia Commons
    License: Public Domain

    13.3: Nails and Hair is shared under a not declared license and was authored, remixed, and/or curated by LibreTexts.

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