# 13.1: Electromagnetic Waves

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Did you ever wonder how a microwave works? It directs invisible waves of radiation toward the food placed inside of it. The radiation transfers energy to the food, causing it to get warmer. The radiation is in the form of microwaves, which are a type of electromagnetic waves.

## What Are Electromagnetic Waves?

Electromagnetic waves are waves that consist of vibrating electric and magnetic fields. Like other waves, electromagnetic waves transfer energy from one place to another. The transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves is called electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic waves can transfer energy through matter or across empty space.

Q: How do microwaves transfer energy inside a microwave oven?

A: They transfer energy through the air inside the oven to the food.

## May the Force Be With You

A familiar example may help you understand the vibrating electric and magnetic fields that make up electromagnetic waves. Consider a bar magnet, like the one in the Figure below. The magnet exerts magnetic force over an area all around it. This area is called a magnetic field. The field lines in the diagram represent the direction and location of the magnetic force. Because of the field surrounding a magnet, it can exert force on objects without touching them. They just have to be within its magnetic field.

Q: How could you demonstrate that a magnet can exert force on objects without touching them?

A: You could put small objects containing iron, such as paper clips, near a magnet and show that they move toward the magnet.

An electric field is similar to a magnetic field. It is an area of electrical force surrounding a positively or negatively charged particle. You can see electric fields in the following Figure below. Like a magnetic field, an electric field can exert force on objects over a distance without actually touching them.

## How an Electromagnetic Wave Begins

An electromagnetic wave begins when an electrically charged particle vibrates. The Figure below shows how this happens. A vibrating charged particle causes the electric field surrounding it to vibrate as well. A vibrating electric field, in turn, creates a vibrating magnetic field. The two types of vibrating fields combine to create an electromagnetic wave.

## How an Electromagnetic Wave Travels

As you can see in the Figure above, the electric and magnetic fields that make up an electromagnetic wave are perpendicular (at right angles) to each other. Both fields are also perpendicular to the direction that the wave travels. Therefore, an electromagnetic wave is a transverse wave. However, unlike a mechanical transverse wave, which can only travel through matter, an electromagnetic transverse wave can travel through empty space. When waves travel through matter, they lose some energy to the matter as they pass through it. But when waves travel through space, no energy is lost. Therefore, electromagnetic waves don’t get weaker as they travel. However, the energy is “diluted” as it travels farther from its source because it spreads out over an ever-larger area.

## Electromagnetic Wave Interactions

When electromagnetic waves strike matter, they may interact with it in the same ways that mechanical waves interact with matter. Electromagnetic waves may:

• reflect, or bounce back from a surface;
• refract, or bend when entering a new medium;
• diffract, or spread out around obstacles.

Electromagnetic waves may also be absorbed by matter and converted to other forms of energy. Microwaves are a familiar example. When microwaves strike food in a microwave oven, they are absorbed and converted to thermal energy, which heats the food.

## Sources of Electromagnetic Waves

The most important source of electromagnetic waves on Earth is the sun. Electromagnetic waves travel from the sun to Earth across space and provide virtually all the energy that supports life on our planet. Many other sources of electromagnetic waves depend on technology. Radio waves, microwaves, and X rays are examples. We use these electromagnetic waves for communications, cooking, medicine, and many other purposes.

Launch the Light Wave simulation below to help you visualize light as a transverse wave moving through the electromagnetic field. Be sure to adjust the wavelength band slider to observe waves of different sizes, such as Radio Waves and X-Rays. There is also an illustration of objects of comparable sizes next to the electromagnetic spectrum to help you imagine the sizes of these invisible light waves.

Interactive Element

## Summary

• Electromagnetic waves are waves that consist of vibrating electric and magnetic fields. They transfer energy through matter or across space. The transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves is called electromagnetic radiation.
• The electric and magnetic fields of an electromagnetic wave are areas of electric or magnetic force. The fields can exert force over objects at a distance.
• An electromagnetic wave begins when an electrically charged particle vibrates. This causes a vibrating electric field, which in turn creates a vibrating magnetic field. The two vibrating fields together form an electromagnetic wave.
• An electromagnetic wave is a transverse wave that can travel across space as well as through matter. When it travels through space, it doesn’t lose energy to a medium as a mechanical wave does.
• When electromagnetic waves strike matter, they may be reflected, refracted, or diffracted. Or they may be absorbed by matter and converted to other forms of energy.
• The most important source of electromagnetic waves on Earth is the sun. Many other sources of electromagnetic waves depend on technology.

## Review

1. What is an electromagnetic wave?
3. Describe the electric and magnetic fields of an electromagnetic wave.
4. How does an electromagnetic wave begin? How does it travel?
5. Compare and contrast electromagnetic and mechanical transverse waves.
6. List three sources of electromagnetic waves on Earth.

## Explore More

Watch the electromagnetic wave animation and then answer the questions below.

1. Identify the vibrating electric and magnetic fields of the wave.
2. Describe the direction in which the wave is traveling.

Study Guide: Wave Optics Study Guide

Real World Application: Printing with Light, The Incredible Hulk

PLIX: Play, Learn, Interact, eXplore: Energy Levels: Bohr's Atomic Model

Videos:

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