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2.5: The Consonant Sound [k]

  • Page ID
    3563
  • Overview of the Consonant Sound [k]

    You can hear the sound [k] at the beginning and end of kick.

    The sound [k] can be spelled a number of different ways, including <c>, <k>, <ck>, <cc>, and <ch>.

    Examples

    Underline the letter(s) that spell [k] in each word.

    1. look
    2. racket

    Review

    1. In the words below, the sound [k] is spelled <c>, <k>, <ck>, <cc>, or <ch>. Underline the letters that spell [k] in each word.
      music books according school
      could because kicker blackest
      ducks works caller account
    2. Sort the words that contain [k] into these five groups. Be careful because one word goes into two groups:
      Words in which [k] is spelled ...
      <c> <k> <ck> <cc> <ch>
               
               
               
               
    3. Five ways to spell [k] are _______, _______, _______, _______, and _______.
    Show Answer
    1. music books according school
      could because kicker blackest
      ducks works caller account
    2. Words in which [k] is spelled ...
      <c> <k> <ck> <cc> <ch>
      music works ducks according school
      because kicker kicker account  
      caller books blackest    
      could        
    3. Five ways to spell [k] are <c><k><ck><cc>, and <ch>.

    Spelling [k]

    The sound [k] is spelled eleven different ways. In spite of all these different spellings of [k], more than nine times out of ten [k] will be spelled either <c>, <k>, or <ck>.

    Examples

    In kind, the [k] is spelled <k>.

    In bucket, the [k] is spelled <ck>.

    In choral, the [k] is spelled <ch>.

    Review

    1. Underline the letters that you think are spelling [k] in the following words. Then write the letters that spell [k] in the blanks. You should find that [k] is spelled eleven different ways.
      Word [k] = Word [k] =
      zodiac   acquired  
      remarkable   khan  
      equally   saccharine  
      hockey   bookcase  
      schemer   trekkie  
      accommodations      
    2. Underline the letters that spell [k] at the beginning of each of the following words.
    3. \begin{align*} &\text{counterfeit} && \text{kitchen} && \text{crime} && \text{community}\\ &\text{calculate} && \text{critical} && \text{kindly} && \text{climate}\\ &\text{condemn} &&\text{campaign} && \text{congress} && \text{capital}\\ &\text{key} &&\text{clinic} && \text{kettle} && \text{conscience}\end{align*}
    4. Sort the sixteen words into these two groups.
      Words in which [k] is spelled ...
      <k> <c>
           
           
           
           
           
           
    5. Underline the letter that comes right after the <c> or <k> in each of the sixteen words in Item 2 above. Then sort the words into this matrix.
      Words in which [k] is spelled ...
        <c> <k>
      Words with an <i> or <e> right after the [k]    
      Words with no <i> or <e> right after the [k]    
    6. In each of these words is the [k] sound at the beginning of the word, in the middle, or at the end? ________
    7. You should have seen that each time a word starts with [k] with an <i> or <e> right after it, the [k] is spelled <k>. Otherwise, [k] at the beginning of a word is spelled <c>. Have you ever seen a word begin with <ck>? ________ If you saw one, like maybe <ckurp>, wouldn't it look odd? ________
    8. At the beginning of a word, [k] is never spelled _____; it is usually spelled _____ or _____. If the [k] has an <i> or an <e> right after it, it is usually spelled _____; otherwise, it is usually spelled _____.
    Show Answer
    1. Word [k] = Word [k] =
      zodiac <c> acquired <cq>
      remarkable <k> khan <kh>
      equally <q> saccharine <cch>
      hockey <ck> bookcase <kc>
      schemer <ch> trekkie <kk>
      accommodations <cc>    
    2. \begin{align*} & \underline{c}ounterfeit  &&  \underline{k}itchen  &&  \underline{c}rime  &&  \underline{c}ommunity \\ & \underline{c}alculate  &&  \underline{c}ritical  &&  \underline{k}indly  &&  \underline{c}limate \\ & \underline{c}ondemn  && \underline{c}ampaign  &&  \underline{c}ongress  &&  \underline{c}apital \\ & \underline{k}ey  && \underline{c}linic  &&  \underline{k}ettle  &&  \underline{c}onscience \end{align*}
    3. Words in which [k] is spelled ...
      <k> <c>
      key counterfeit crime
      kitchen calculate congress
      kindly condemn community
      kettle critical climate
        campaign capital
        clinic conscience
    4. Words in which [k] is spelled ...
        <c> <k>
      Words with an <i> or <e> right after the [k]  

      key

      kitchen

      kindly

      kettle

      Words with no <i> or <e> right after the [k]

      counterfeit

      calculate

      condemn

      critical

      campaign

      clinic

      crime

      congress

      community

      climate

      capital

      conscience

       
    5. In each of these words is there a [k] sound at the beginning of the word, in the middle, or at the end? At the beginning

    6. You should have seen that each time a word starts with [k] with an <i> or <e> right after it, the [k] is spelled <k>. Otherwise, [k] at the beginning of a word is spelled <c>. Have you ever seen a word begin with <ck>? No. If you saw one, like maybe <ckurp>, wouldn't it look odd? Yes.

    7. At the beginning of a word, [k] is never spelled <ck>; it is usually spelled <c> or <k>. If the [k] has an <i> or an <e> right after it, it is usually spelled <k>; otherwise, it is usually spelled <c>.

    Spelling [k] at the End of Words

    At the end of a word, [k] will usually be spelled <k> if it has a long vowel or consonant sound or a short vowel sound spelled with a digraph right in front of it; but it will usually be spelled <ck> or <c> if it has a short vowel sound spelled with a single letter right in front of it. 

    Examples

    Underline the letter(s) that spell [k] in the following words.

    truck     stock     make     bark     embark

    Review

    1. All of the following words end in the sound [k]. Underline the letter(s) that spell the final [k] in each word. Note that final <e>s are not part of the spelling of [k].
      \begin{align*} &\text{remark} && \text{economic} && \text{break} && \text{seismic}\\ &\text{wreck} && \text{shriek} && \text{o'clock} && \text{speck}\\ &\text{mistake} &&\text{scientific} && \text{brook} && \text{hawk}\\ &\text{struck} &&\text{knock} && \text{rebuke} && \text{provoke}\\ &\text{unmask} &&\text{overlook} && \text{earthquake} && \text{shark}\end{align*}
    2. Sort the twenty words into these three groups:
      Words in which the final [k] is spelled ...
      <c> <ck> <k>  
             
             
             
             
             
             
    3. Now sort the twenty words into these two groups:
      Words with a consonant sound right in front of the final [k] Words with a vowel sound right in front of the final [k]
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
    4. Now sort into this matrix the seventeen words from Item 3 with a vowel sound in front of the final [k].
      Note: Here are some words with short vowel sounds: bat, bet, bit, bought, book, but. And here are some with long vowel sounds: bait, beet, bite, boat, boot, beaut.
      Words in which the final [k] is spelled ...
        <c> or <ck> <k>
      Words with a short vowel sound spelled with a single letter in front of the [k]    
      Words with a short vowel sound spelled with a digraph in front of the [k]    
      Words with a long vowel sound in front of the [k]    
    5. How is the final [k] spelled in the three words that have a consonant sound in front of it? ______ How is it spelled in the five words that have a long vowel in front of it? ________ How is it spelled in the three words that have a short vowel spelled with a digraph right in front of it? ________
    Show Answer
    1. \begin{align*} & remar\underline{k}  &&  economi\underline{k}  &&  brea\underline{k}  &&  seismi\underline{k} \\ & wre\underline{ck}  &&  shrie\underline{k}  &&  o'clo\underline{ck}  &&  spe\underline{ck} \\ & mista\underline{k}e  && scientifi\underline{k}  &&  broo\underline{k}  &&  haw\underline{k} \\ & stru\underline{ck}  && kno\underline{ck}  &&  rebu\underline{k}e  &&  provo\underline{k}e \\ & unmas\underline{k}  && overloo\underline{k}  &&  earthqua\underline{k}e  &&  shar\underline{k} \end{align*}
    2. Words in which the final [k] is spelled ...
      <c> <ck> <k>  
      economic wreck remark break
      seismic o'clock shriek mistake
      scientific speck brook hawk
        struck rebuke provoke
        knock unmask overlook
          earthquake shark
    3. Words with a consonant sound right in front of the final [k] Words with a vowel sound right in front of the final [k]
      remark economic seismic
      unmask scientific wreck
      shark o'clock speck
        struck knock
        shriek brook
        rebuke earthquake
        break mistake
        hawk provoke
        overlook  
    4. Words in which the final [k] is spelled ...
        <c> or <ck> <k>
      Words with a short vowel sound spelled with a single letter in front of the [k]

      wreck

      struck

      economic

      scientific

      knock

      o’clock

      seismic

      speck

       
      Words with a short vowel sound spelled with a digraph in front of the [k]  

      overlook

      brook

      hawk

      Words with a long vowel sound in front of the [k]  

      mistake

      shriek

      rebuke

      break

      earthquake

      provoke

    5. How is the final [k] spelled in the three words that have a consonant sound in front of it? <k> How is it spelled in the five words that have a long vowel in front of it? <k> How is it spelled in the three words that have a short vowel spelled with a digraph right in front of it? <k>.

    Words That End in <c> and <ck>

    If a word ends in [k] with a short vowel sound in front of it, the [k] will usually be spelled either <ck> or <c>. If the word has only one vowel sound, the [k] will usually be spelled <ck>. If the word has more than one vowel sound, the [k] will usually be spelled <c>.

    Examples

    Below are some words that end with the sound [k] spelled <ck>:

    tick      clock       wreck      quick 

    The following words spelled [k] with <c> at the end:

    music     patriotic     traffic     athletic

    Review

    1. Underline the letters that spell the final [k] in each of them. Don't worry yet about the columns labeled ‘Sounds’:
      Word Sounds Word Sounds Word Sounds Word Sounds
      poetic   wreck   specific   speck  
      struck   athletic   elastic   enthusiastic  
      scientific   quick   zodiac   check  
      knock   sick   economic   sympathetic  
      traffic   seismic   schlock   patriotic  
    2. Now pronounce each word carefully. Listen for the number of vowel sounds in each word. In the ‘Sounds’ columns write that number. Eight of the words have one vowel sound. Two have two vowel sounds. Five have three vowel sounds. Four have four vowel sounds, and one has five.
    3. Now sort the twenty words into this matrix:
        <c> <ck>
      Words with only one vowel sound    
      Words with more than one vowel sound    
    4. The following words all contain two vowel sounds but still end in <ck>. Be ready to discuss why they can be analyzed to show that they actually do not contradict the conclusion that in words with only vowel sound final [k] will usually be spelled <ck>:

      Word Analysis
      horseback  
      aftershock  
      o'clock  
      airsick  
      thunderstruck  
      yardstick  
    Show Answer

    1. and 2. 

    Word Sounds Word Sounds Word Sounds Word Sounds
    poetic 3 wreck 1 specific 3 speck 1
    struck 1 athletic 3 elastic 3 enthusiastic 5
    scientific 4 quick 1 zodiac 3 check 1
    knock 1 sick 1 economic 4 sympathetic 4
    traffic 2 seismic 2 schlock 1 patriotic 4

    3. 
    Words with the final [k] spelled ...
      <c> <ck>
    Words with only one vowel sound  

    struck

    knock

    wreck

    quick

    sick

    chlock

    speck

    check

    Words with more than one vowel sound

    poetic

    scientific

    traffic

    athletic

    reissue

    specific

    elastic

    zodiac

    economic

    enthusiastic

    sympathetic

    patriotic

     

    4. 
    Word Analysis
    horseback horse + back
    aftershock after + shock
    o’clock o’ + clock
    airsick air + sick
    thunderstruck thunder + struck
    yardstick yard + stick

    Spelling [k] in the Middle of Words

    Often when a [k] is in the middle of a word, it is actually at the beginning or the end of a shorter word, or free stem, inside the longer one.

    For instance, there is a [k] in the middle of recall. But recall actually is made up of the prefix re- and the free stem call: recall = re + call. The [k] in call behaves just the way it is supposed to when it is at the front of a word: It is spelled <c> rather than <k> because it does not have an <e> or <i> after it, and it is not spelled <ck> because words don't start with <ck>.

    The word darkroom has a [k] in the middle. But darkroom is a compound that analyzes to the two free stems dark and roomdarkroom = dark + room. So the [k] in darkroom is really at the end of the free stem dark - and it behaves just as it is supposed to: It is spelled <k> rather than <c> or <ck> because of the consonant in front of it.

    In a very few words there is a <ck> spelling that occurs when a free stem that ends in <c> has a suffix added to it that starts with <e>, <i>, or <y>: A <k> is inserted after the <c>: For instance, panic + ed = panic + k + ed = panicked. The <k> is inserted to avoid having the <c> look as if it should be pronounced as a soft <c>, [s] before the <e>, <i>, or <y>, as it would if we wrote *paniced.

    Examples

    The following words contain a [k] in the middle of an element.

    \begin{align*} &\text{contractor} && \text{subjects} && \text{hockey} && \text{sacrifice}\\ &\text{picnics} && \text{perfectly} && \text{collects} && \text{function}\\ &\text{instruction} &&\text{ankle} && \text{affectionate} && \text{picture}\\ &\text{infection} &&\text{describe} && \text{pickle} && \text{electrician}\\ &\text{restriction} &&\text{spectacle} && \text{crocodile} && \text{intellectual}\\ &\text{transcription} &&\text{production} && \text{introduction} && \text{instinctive}\\ &\text{chuckle} &&\text{skirts} && \text{donkey} && \text{wrinkles}\\ &\text{sketches} &&\text{skyscraper} && \text{skies} && \text{tackle}\end{align*}

    Review

    1. All of the following words have a [k] somewhere in the middle. Each of the words actually contains a free stem that has the [k] either at the beginning or the end.
      First, underline the letter(s) that spell [k].
      Second, analyze each word enough to show the free stem that begins or ends with [k].
      Third, be ready to talk about why the [k] is spelled the way it is in the free stems.
      Word Analysis
      checkout  
      unconscious  
      unkindly  
      remarkable  
      inconsistent  
      unenthusiastically  
      trickiest  
      passkey  
      breakfast  
      musicality  
      encourage  
      trickster  
      sickeningly  
      wreckage  
      mistakenly  
      jackknife  
      bookcase  
      schlockiest  
      backcast  
      unluckily  
    2. Here are some words that involve <k> insertion. Analyze each one to show how the the <k> was inserted.

      Word Analysis: Free stem + suffix
      panicked panic + k + ed
      panicky  
      picnicking  
      trafficker  
      bivouacked  
    Show Answer
    1. Word Analysis
      checkout check + out
      unconscious un + conscious
      unkindly un + kind + ly
      remarkable remark + able
      inconsistent in + consist + ent
      unenthusiastically unenthusiastic + al + ly
      trickiest trick + y + i + est
      passkey pass + key
      breakfast break + fast
      musicality music + al + ity
      encourage en + courage
      trickster trick + ster
      sickeningly sick + en + ing + ly
      wreckage wreck + age
      mistakenly mistake + en + ly
      jackknife jack + knife
      bookcase book + case
      schlockiest schlock + y + i + est
      backcast back + cast
      unluckily un + luck + y + i + ly
    2. Word Analysis: Free stem + suffix
      panicked panic + k + ed
      panicky panic + k + y
      picnicking picnic + k + ing
      trafficker traffic + k + er
      bivouacked bivouac + k + ed

    The Sound [k] before <le>

    When the sound [k] is followed by the letters <le>, it can be spelled <k>, <c>, or <ck>.

    If the [k] sound follows a consonant, it is spelled <k>. If it follows a vowel, it is spelled <c> or <ck> depending on whether the vowel is short or long and whether it is stressed.

    Examples

    Does a <k>, <ck>, or <c> come before the <le> in each word? What comes before the [k] sound - a consonant or vowel?

    1. ankle - <k> - consonant
    2. article - <c> - vowel
    3. tackle - <ck> - vowel
    4. For the two words that involve a vowel right before the [k] sound, which one is a stressed short vowel? - tackle

    Review

    1. Here are some words that have [k] right in front of an <le> that comes at the end of the word. Sometimes the [k] is spelled <k>, sometimes <ck>, sometimes <c>. Sort the words into the two groups described below. The three example words have already been done.
    2. \begin{align*} &\text{wrinkle} && \text{ankle} && \text{sparkle} && \text{trickle} && \text{tackle}\\ &\text{spectacle} && \text{tickle} && \text{barnacle} && \text{miracle} && \text{obstacle}\\ &\text{particle} &&\text{cycle} && \text{chronicle} && \text{twinkle} && \text{vehicle}\\ &\text{icicle} &&\text{chuckle} && \text{freckle} && \text{article} && \text{bicycle}\\ &\text{pickle} &&\text{heckle} && \text{shackle} && \text{receptacle} && \text{oracle}\end{align*}  
      Words in which the [k] follows a ...
      Vowel Consonant
           article  
             ankle
           tackle  
             
             
             
             
    3. In words in which [k] follows a consonant and is in turn followed by an <le> that comes at the end of the word, the [k] is spelled ___.
    4. Read aloud each of the words in the table above in which the [k] follows a vowel. In each word mark the vowel that has strong stress on it, like this: wrínkle and spéctacle. The vowel with strong stress will not always be the vowel right in front of the [k]. If you get confused, don't be afraid to ask for help or to look words up in your dictionary.
    5. Now sort the words you just marked into these two groups.
      Words in which the vowel right in front of the [k] 
      has strong stress does not have strong stress
             
             
             
             
             
             
    6. In words that have a [k] right in front of an <le> that comes at the end of the word and a vowel that does not have strong stress right in front of the [k], the [k] is spelled ___.
    7. Now read over your list of words with a vowel with strong stress right in front of the [k]. Sort the words into these two groups.
      Words in which the vowel right in front of the [k] is ...
      short long
             
             
             
    8. In words that have a [k] right in front of an <le> that comes at the end of the word and a vowel with strong stress right in front of the [k], the [k] is spelled ___ if the vowel is short, and it is spelled ___ if the vowel is long.
    9. In words that have a [k] right in front of an <le> that comes at the end of the word:
      (i) If there is a stressed short vowel right in front of the [k], the [k] is spelled ___;
      (ii) If there is a weak vowel or a strong long vowel right in front of the [k], the [k] is spelled ___; and
      (iii) If there is a consonant right in front of the [k], the [k] is spelled ___.

    Show Answer
    1. Words in which the [k] follows a ...
      Vowel Consonant
      spectacle heckle  article wrinkle
      particle barnacle receptacle  ankle
      icicle chronicle  tackle sparkle
      pickle freckle obstacle twinkle
      tickle shackle vehicle  
      cycle trickle bicycle  
      chuckle miracle oracle  
    2. In words in which [k] follows a consonant and is in turn followed by an <le> that comes at the end of the word, the [k] is spelled <k>.
    3. Read aloud each of the words in which the [k] follows a vowel. In each word mark the vowel that has strong stress on it, like this: wrínkle and spéctacle. The vowel with strong stress will not always be the vowel right in front of the [k]. If you get confused, don't be afraid to ask for help or to look words up in your dictionary. (See table in question 1 for answers.)
    4. Now sort the words you just marked into these two groups.
      Words in which the vowel right in front of the [k] 
      has strong stress does not have strong stress
      pickle shackle spectacle vehicle
      cycle tackle particle barnacle
      heckle freckle article bicycle
      tickle   icicle miracle
      chuckle   obstacle receptacle
      trickle   chronicle oracle
    5. In words that have a [k] right in front of an <le> that comes at the end of the word and a vowel that does not have strong stress right in front of the [k], the [k] is spelled <c>.
    6. Now read over your list of words with a vowel with strong stress right in front of the [k]. Sort the words into these two groups.
      Words in which the vowel right in front of the [k] is ...
      short long
      pickle chuckle tackle cycle
      heckle trickle freckle  
      tickle shackle    
    7. In words that have a [k] right in front of an <le> that comes at the end of the word and a vowel with strong stress right in front of the [k], the [k] is spelled <ck> if the vowel is short, and it is spelled <c> if the vowel is long.
    8. In words that have a [k] right in front of an <le> that comes at the end of the word:
      (i) If there is a stressed short vowel right in front of the [k], the [k] is spelled <ck>;
      (ii) If there is a weak vowel or a strong long vowel right in front of the [k], the [k] is spelled <c>; and
      (iii) If there is a consonant right in front of the [k], the [k] is spelled <k>.

    The Combinations [ks] and [kw]

    Four ways of spelling [ks] are <ks>, <x>, <cks>, and <cs>.

    The combination [kw] is normally spelled <qu>.

    Examples

    You can hear the combination [kw] at the beginning of queen.

    You can hear the combination [ks] at the end of fix.

    Review

    1. Underline the letters that spell [ks] or [kw]. In words like likes the <e> is not helping spell the [ks]. It is marking the long vowel, so you should just underline the <k> and <s>: likes.
    2. \begin{align*} &\text{expense} && \text{squeaks} && \text{jokes} && \text{tricks}\\ &\text{blinks} && \text{mixed} && \text{remarks} && \text{required}\\ &\text{quizzed} &&\text{parks} && \text{exercise} && \text{fox}\\ &\text{locks} &&\text{mechanics} && \text{quits} && \text{attacks}\\ &\text{relax} &&\text{taxes} && \text{mistakes} && \text{weeks}\end{align*}
    3. Sort the words into these two groups. Be careful: One word goes into both groups.
      Words that Contain [ks]: Words that Contain [kw]:
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
    4. In seven words [ks] is spelled ______
    5. In six words [ks] is spelled ______
    6. In three words [ks] is spelled ______
    7. In one word [ks] is spelled ______
    8. Sort the words that contain [ks] into these four groups:
      Words with [ks] spelled ...
      <ks> <x> <cks> <cs>
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
    9. Four ways of spelling [ks] are ______, ______, ______, and ______.
    10. In all the words that contain [kw], how is the [kw] spelled? ______. That is the way we spell [kw] just about all the time!
    11. The combination [kw] is normally spelled ______.
    Show Answer
    1. \begin{align*} & e\underline{\underline{x}}pense  &&  s\underline{q}uea\underline{k}s  &&  jo\underline{k}es  &&  tri\underline{cks} \\ & blin\underline{ks}  &&  mi\underline{x}ed  &&  remar\underline{ks}  &&  re\underline{qu}ired \\ & \underline{qu}izzed  && par\underline{ks}  &&  e\underline{x}ercise  &&  fo\underline{x} \\ & lo\underline{cks}  && mechani\underline{cs}  &&  \underline{qu}its  &&  atta\underline{cks} \\ & rela\underline{x}  && ta\underline{x}es  &&  mista\underline{k}es  &&  wee\underline{ks} \end{align*}
    2. Words that Contain [ks]: Words that Contain [kw]:
      expense jokes quizzed
      blinks remarks squeaks
      locks exercise quits
      relax mistakes require
      squeaks tricks  
      mixed fox  
      parks attacks  
      mechanics weeks  
      taxes    
    3. In seven words [ks] is spelled <ks>
    4. In six words [ks] is spelled <x>
    5. In three words [ks] is spelled <cks>
    6. In one word [ks] is spelled <cs>
    7. Words with [ks] spelled ...
      <ks> <x> <cks> <cs>
      blinks expense locks mechanics
      squeaks relax tricks  
      parks mixed attacks  
      jokes taxes    
      remarks exercise    
      mistakes fox    
      weeks      
    8. Four ways of spelling [ks] are <ks><x><cks>, and <cs>.
    9. In all the words that contain [kw], how is the [kw] spelled? <qu>. That is the way we spell [kw] just about all the time!
    10. The combination [kw] is normally spelled <qu>.

    Some Prefixes That Make <cc>

    When they are added to stems that start with <c>, the three prefixes ad-, sub-, and ob- assimilate to ac-, suc-, and oc-, making a <cc> toward the front of the word. Sometimes the <cc> spells the sound [k]; sometimes it spells [ks].

    Examples

    The words below are analyzed to show where the two <c>s come from.

    Word Prefix + Stem
    accelerate a + c + celerate
    occasionally o + c + casionally
    successful su c + cessful

    Review

    All of the following words contain one of these prefixes. Analyze each word into the prefix and stem and show where the two <c>s come from.

    Word Prefix + Stem
    1. accelerate a + c + celerate
    2. according  
    3. account  
    4. occasionally  
    5. successful  
    6. occurrence  
    7. occupy  
    8. accident  
    9. accurate  
    10. access  
    11. occupation  
    12. accompany  
    13. accommodate  
    14. succinctly  
    15. accuse  
    16. accumulate  

    17. Sort the words into these two groups.

    Words in which the <cc> spells ...
    [k] [ks]
         
         
         
         
         
         

    18. Look carefully at the letter that comes right after the <cc> in each of the words. Then sort the words into this matrix.

    Words in which the <cc> spells ...
      [k] [ks]
    Words that have <e> or <i> following the <cc>    
    Words that do not have <e> or <i> following the <cc>    
    Show Answer
    Word Prefix + Stem
    1. accelerate a + c + celerate
    2. according a + c + cord
    3. account a + c + count
    4. occasionally o + c + casionally
    5. successful su + c + cessful
    6. occurrence o + c + currence
    7. occupy o + c + cupy
    8. accident a + c + cident
    9. accurate a + c + curate
    10. access a + c + cess
    11. occupation o + c + cupation
    12. accompany a + c + company
    13. accommodate a + c + commodate
    14. succinctly su + c + cinctly
    15. accuse a + c + cuse
    16. accumulate a + c + cumulate

    17. Sort the words into these two groups.
    Words in which the <cc> spells ...
    [k] [ks]
    according occupation accelerate
    account accompany successful
    occasionally accommodate accident
    occurrence accuse access
    occupy accumulate succinctly
    accurate    

    18. Look carefully at the letter that comes right after the <cc> in each of the words. Then sort the words into this matrix.

    Words in which the <cc> spells ...
      [k] [ks]
    Words that have <e> or <i> following the <cc>  

    accelerate

    successful

    accident

    access

    succinctly

    Words that do not have <e> or <i> following the <cc>

    according

    account

    occasionally

    occurrence

    occupy

    accurate

    occupation

    accompany

    accommodate

    accuse

    accumulate

     

    Explore More

    Sometimes <cc> spells [k] and sometimes it spells [ks]. All of the following words contain the sound [ks], spelled different ways.

    1. Underline the letters that spell the [ks] in each of these words.
      \begin{align*}&\text{exclusive} && \text{exclamation} && \text{experience}\\ &\text{hawks} && \text{complexity} && \text{sharks}\\ &\text{picnics} && \text{explode} && \text{extraordinary}\\ &\text{extend} && \text{shrieks} && \text{knocks}\\ &\text{wrecks} && \text{economics} && \text{medics}\end{align*}
    2. Sort the fifteen words above into these groups.
      Words in which [ks] is spelled ...
      <cs> <cks> <ks> <x>
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
    Show Answer
    1. \begin{align*}&  e\underline{x}clusive &&  e\underline{x}clamation &&  e\underline{x}perience\\ &  haw\underline{ks} &&  comple\underline{x}ity &&  shar\underline{ks} \\ &  picni\underline{cs} &&  e\underline{x}plode &&  e\underline{x}traordinary \\ &  e\underline{x}tend &&  shrie\underline{ks} &&  kno\underline{cks} \\ &  wre\underline{cks} &&  economi\underline{cs} &&  medi\underline{cs}\end{align*}
    2. Words in which [ks] is spelled ...
      <cs> <cks> <ks> <x>
      picnics knocks hawks exclusive
      economics wrecks shrieks extend
      medics   sharks exclamation
            complexity
            explode
            experience
            extraordinary

     

    [k] Spelled <q> or <qu>

    In a few words the letter <q> is used in the spelling of the sound [k]. The letter <q> almost always is followed by the letter <u>. Sometimes the <u> spells the sound [w] so that the <qu> spells [kw]. Sometimes the <qu> spells just [k].

    Whether it's spelling [kw] or [k], <qu> nearly always comes at the very beginning or the very end of the element it is in. 

    Examples

    In the word unique, <qu> spells [k].

    In the word equipment, <qu> spells [kw].

    Review

    1. Read the following words, paying special attention to whether the <qu> in each spells [kw] or just [k]. Next, sort the words into the two groups below.
    2. \begin{align*} &\text{antique} && \text{conquest} && \text{consequently} && \text{mosquito} && \text{requirement}\\ &\text{earthquake} && \text{equality} && \text{equipment} && \text{squadron} && \text{square}\\ &\text{equivalent} && \text{physique} && \text{exquisite} && \text{frequently} && \text{squirrel}\\ &\text{liquor} && \text{liquid} && \text{unique} && \text{request} && \text{squeak}\\ &\text{quantity} && \text{quarrel} && \text{question} && \text{technique} && \text{subsequently}\\ &\text{quickly} && \text{picturesque} && \text{quietly} && \text{quotation} && \text{squeeze}\end{align*}  
      Words in which <qu> spells ...
      [kw] [k]
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
    3. In words in which <qu> spells [kw], the <u> spells [w], so [k] is spelled _______. But in words in which the <u> does not spell [w], [k] is spelled ________.

    4. In the thirty words above, there are eleven in which the [k] spelled either <q> or <qu> is the first or the last sound in the word. When it comes at the end, it has a silent final <e> insulating the <u>. Find the eleven words and copy them into the table below.

      Words in which the [k] spelled <q> or <qu> is the ...
      first sound in the word last sound in the word
             
             
             
    5. When the [k] is not the first or last sound of the word it is in, it nearly always is the first or last sound of the element it is in. For instance, earthquake is earth + quake, with the [k] spelled <q> as the first sound in the free stem quake. Analyze each of the following words. Show any assimilation where a letter changed when elements were added together.

      Word Formula Analysis
      earthquake Free stem + free stem earth + quake
      conquest Prefix + free base  
      exquisite Prefix + bound stem  
      requirement Prefix + bound base + suffix  
      request Prefix + free base  
      liquor Bound base + suffix -or  
      liquid Bound base + suffix  
      equality Bound base + suffix + suffix  
      subsequently Prefix + bound base + suffix -ent + suffix2  
      consequently Prefix + bound base + suffix1 + suffix2  
      turquoise Bound base + suffix -oise  
      bouquet Bound base + suffix -et  
      mosquito Bound base + suffix -ito  
      frequently Bound base + suffix1 + suffix2  
    6. In five of the thirty words in Item 1 in which [k] is spelled <q>, the <qu> is part of the cluster <squ>. Those five words are
      _______, _______, _______, _______, and _______.

    7. Where does the <squ> cluster come in these five words? _______

    8. The <q> or <qu> that spell [k] are nearly always at the very _______ or _______ of the element in which they occur.

    Show Answer
    1. Words in which <qu> spells ...
      [kw] [k]
      earthquake consequently quotation antique
      equivalent equipment requirement liquor
      quantity exquisite square physique
      quickly question squirrel picturesque
      conquest quietly squeak unique
      equality squadron subsequently mosquito
      liquid frequently squeeze turquoise
      quarrel request    
    2. In words in which <qu> spells [kw], the <u> spells [w], so [k] is spelled <q>. But in words in which the <u> does not spell [w], [k] is spelled <qu>.

    3. Whether it’s spelling [kw] or [k], <qu> nearly always comes at the very beginning or the very end of the element it is in.

      Words in which the [k] spelled <q> or <qu> is the ...
      first sound in the word last sound in the word
      quantity question antique unique
      quickly quietly physique technique
      quarrel quotation picturesque  
    4. Word Formula Analysis
      earthquake Free stem + free stem earth + quake
      conquest Prefix + free base com + n + quest
      exquisite Prefix + bound stem ex + quisite
      requirement Prefix + bound base + suffix re + quire + ment
      request Prefix + free base re + quest
      liquor Bound base + suffix -or liqu + or
      liquid Bound base + suffix liqui + id
      equality Bound base + suffix + suffix equ + al + ity
      subsequently Prefix + bound base + suffix -ent + suffix2 sub + sequ + ent + ly
      consequently Prefix + bound base + suffix1 + suffix2 com + n + sequ + ent + ly
      turquoise Bound base + suffix -oise turqu + oise
      bouquet Bound base + suffix -et bouqu + et
      mosquito Bound base + suffix -ito mosqu + ito
      frequently Bound base + suffix1 + suffix2 frequ + ent + ly
    5. In five of the thirty words in Item 1 in which [k] is spelled <q>, the <qu> is part of the cluster <squ>. Those five words are:
      \begin{align*}& squadron && square && squirrel && squeak && squeeze\end{align*}

    6. Where does the <squ> cluster come in these five words? At the front

    7. The <q> or <qu> that spell [k] are nearly always at the very front or end of the element in which they occur.

    [k] Spelled <ch> or <lk>

    Most of the words in English that contain the sound [k] spelled <ch> come from old Greek words with chi. 

    We borrowed the letters of our alphabet from the Romans. The Romans had borrowed their alphabet from a group of people called the Etruscans, who had borrowed theirs from the Greeks. One of the Greeks' letters looked like our <X>. It was called chi, pronounced [kī], and it spelled the sound [k]. When we borrowed Greek words that contained chi, we changed the spelling from <x> to <ch>, still pronounced [k] - as in words like chorusschool, and Christmas.  

    There is one other spelling of [k] that is worth a special look. In a few words [k] is spelled <lk> - as in chalk. A long time ago the <l> was pronounced, but no longer.

    Examples

    The following words contain a <ch> spelling of [k].

    school      anchor      christmas

    The following words contain an <lk> spelling of [k] where the <l> is no longer pronounced.

    talk      walk      stalk

    Review

    1. Underline the <ch> spellings of [k] in each of the following words.
      \begin{align*} &\text{orchestra} && \text{school} && \text{architect} && \text{psychiatrist}\\ &\text{chorus} && \text{chaos} && \text{echo} && \text{scholar}\\ &\text{chronicle} && \text{mechanic} && \text{character} && \text{orchid}\\ &\text{ache} && \text{schedule} && \text{scheme} && \text{chord}\\ &\text{psychology} &&\text{chemical} && \text{anchor} && \text{christmas}\\ &\text{monarch} &&\text{stomach} && \text{technical} && \text{chlorophyll}\end{align*}
    2. Sort the words into the three groups described below.
      Words in which [k] is spelled <ch> ...
      at the front in the middle at the end
      chorus orchestra scheme ache
      chronicle psychology anchor monarch
      chaos school technical stomach
      chemical mechanic psychiatrist  
      character schedule scholar  
      chord architect orchid  
      Christmas echo    
      chlorophyll      
    3. All of the following words contain an <l> that is usually no longer pronounced. Six of them end in the sound [k] spelled <lk>. Sort the sixteen words into the four groups described below.
      \begin{align*} &\text{salmon} && \text{talk} && \text{stalk} && \text{halve}\\ &\text{walk} && \text{yolk} && \text{palm} && \text{chalk}\\ &\text{folk} &&\text{halfway} && \text{psalm} && \text{calves}\\ &\text{calf} &&\text{calm} && \text{salve} && \text{behalf}\end{align*}  
      Words that end ...
      <lk> <lf> <lm> <lve>
      walk calf salmon salve
      folk halfway calm halve
      talk behalf palm calves
      yolk   psalm  
      stalk      
      chalk      
    4. In the words in which [k] is spelled <lk>, what letter usually is right in front of the <l>? ______. In words in which [k] is spelled <lk>, what other letter sometimes is right in front of the <l>? ______. In words that end <alk>, which does the <a> spell: [a] or [o]? ______. In words that end <olk>, which does the <o> spell: [o] or [ō]? ______.
    Show Answer
    1. \begin{align*} & or\underline{ch}estra  &&  s\underline{ch}ool  &&  ar\underline{ch}itect  &&  psy\underline{ch}iatrist \\ & \underline{ch}orus  &&  \underline{ch}aos  &&  e\underline{ch}o  &&  s\underline{ch}olar \\ & \underline{ch}ronicle  &&  me\underline{ch}anic  &&  \underline{ch}aracter  &&  or\underline{ch}id \\ & a\underline{ch}e  &&  s\underline{ch}edule  &&  s\underline{ch}eme  &&  \underline{ch}ord \\ & psy\underline{ch}ology  && \underline{ch}emical  &&  an\underline{ch}or  &&  \underline{ch}ristmas \\ & monar\underline{ch}  && stoma\underline{ch}  &&  te\underline{ch}nical  &&  \underline{ch}lorophyll \end{align*}
    2. Words in which [k] is spelled <ch> ...
      at the front in the middle at the end
      chorus orchestra scheme ache
      chronicle psychology anchor monarch
      chaos school technical stomach
      chemical mechanic psychiatrist  
      character schedule scholar  
      chord architect orchid  
      Christmas echo    
      chlorophyll      
    3. Words that end ...
      <lk> <lf> <lm> <lve>
      walk calf salmon salve
      folk halfway calm halve
      talk behalf palm calves
      yolk   psalm  
      stalk      
      chalk      
    4. In the words in which [k] is spelled <lk>, what letter usually is right in front of the <l>? <a>. In words in which [k] is spelled <lk>, what other letter sometimes is right in front of the <l>? <o>. In words that end <alk>, which does the <a> spell: [a] or [o]? [o]. In words that end <olk>, which does the <o> spell: [o] or [ō]? [ō].