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2.4: The Consonant Sound [d]

  • Page ID
    3565
  • Overview of the Consonant Sound [d]

    Two ways of spelling the sound [d] are <d> and <dd>. More than 99% of the time [d] is spelled <d> or <dd>. Two important minor spellings of [d] are <ed> and <ld>.

    Examples

    You can hear the sound [d] at the beginning and end of the word dude.

    You can hear [d] spelled <ed> in the past tense suffix -ed (as in spelled and rubbed) and <ld> in the four words couldshouldwouldsolder.

    Review

    1. Underline the letters that spell [d]:
      \begin{align*}
          & \text{ducks} && \text{holiday} && \text{differing} && \text{muddy}\\
          & \text{around} && \text{children} && \text{didn't} && \text{voted}\\
          & \text{add} && \text{middle} && \text{sudden} && \text{board}\\
          & \text{good} && \text{found} && \text{behind} && \text{said}\\
          & \text{beyond} && \text{study} && \text{danger} && \text{under}\\
          & \text{world} && \text{daddy} && \text{hidden} && \text{reddest}
      \end{align*}
    2. Now sort the words into these two groups. Be careful! One word goes into both groups:
      Words with the [d] spelled ...
      <d> <dd>
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
    3. The two most common ways of spelling the sound [d] are _______ and _______. 
    Show Answer
    1. \begin{align*}
          & \underline{d}ucks && holi\underline{d}ay && \underline{d}iffering && mu\underline{dd}y\\
          & aroun\underline{d} && chil\underline{d}ren && \underline{d}i\underline{d}n't && vote\underline{d}\\
          & a\underline{dd} && mi\underline{dd}le && su\underline{dd}en && boar\underline{d}\\
          & goo\underline{d} && foun\underline{d} && behin\underline{d} && sai\underline{d}\\
          & beyon\underline{d} && \underline{study} && \underline{danger} && un\underline{d}er\\
          & worl\underline{d} && \underline{d}a\underline{dd}y && hi\underline{dd}en && re\underline{dd}est
      \end{align*}
    2. Words with the [d] spelled ...
      <d> <dd>
      ducks daddy add
      around differing middle
      good didn't daddy
      beyond behind sudden
      world danger hidden
      holiday voted muddy
      children board reddest
      found said  
      study under  
    3. The two most common ways of spelling the sound [d] are <d> and <dd>

    Explore More

    Word Find. Find and circle the fifteen words that contain the sound [d]. Write the ones you find in alphabetical order at the bottom of the page:

    \begin{align*}
        & \text{children} && \text{different} && \text{found} && \text{aid} && \text{muddy}\\
        & \text{under} && \text{today} && \text{study} && \text{daddy} && \text{do}\\
        & \text{hidden} && \text{sudden} && \text{middle} && \text{add} && \text{had}\\
    \end{align*}

    Put the words in alphabetical order:

    1. __________
    2. __________
    3. __________
    4. __________
    5. __________
    6. __________
    7. __________
    8. __________
    9. __________
    10. __________
    11. __________
    12. __________
    13. __________
    14. __________
    15. __________
    Show Answer

    Words in alphabetial order:

    1. add
    2. children
    3. daddy
    4. different
    5. do
    6. found
    7. had
    8. hidden
    9. middle
    10. muddy
    11. said
    12. study
    13. sudden
    14. today
    15. under

    Spelling [d]

    Two ways of spelling the sound [d] are <d> and <dd>. Two minor ways of spelling [d] are <ed> and <ld>.

    Examples

    You can hear the consonant sound [d] at the beginning and end of the word did.

    Review

    1. Underline the letters that spell [d] in the following words:
      \begin{align*}
          & \text{attendance} && \text{suicide} && \text{scolded} && \text{folder}\\
          & \text{bewilder} && \text{indict} && \text{debt} && \text{doughnut}\\
          & \text{evident} && \text{difficult} && \text{radio} && \text{decided}\\
          & \text{liquid} && \text{secluded} && \text{extend} && \text{correspond}\\
          & \text{building} && \text{crowded} && \text{divide} && \text{develop}
      \end{align*}
    2. Sort the twenty words into these three groups. Some words will go into more than one group:
      Words in which [d] is...
      in the front in the middle at the end
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
    3. How is [d] spelled in all of these words? ___________. More than nine times out of ten [d] is spelled that way.
    Show Answer
    1. \begin{align*}
          &  atten\underline{d}ance  &&  suici\underline{d}e  &&  scol\underline{d}ed  &&  fol\underline{d}er \\
          &  bewil\underline{d}er  &&  in\underline{d}ict  &&  \underline{d}ebt  &&  \underline{d}oughnut \\
          &  evi\underline{d}ent  &&  \underline{d}ifficult  &&  ra\underline{d}io  &&  \underline{d}eci\underline{d}e\underline{d} \\
          &  liqui\underline{d}  &&  seclu\underline{d}e\underline{d}  &&  exten\underline{d}  &&  correspon\underline{d} \\
          &  buil\underline{d}ing  &&  crow\underline{d}e\underline{d}  &&  \underline{d}ivi\underline{d}e &&  \underline{d}evelop 
      \end{align*}
    2. Words in which [d] is...
      in the front in the middle at the end
      difficult attendance liquid
      debt bewilder suicide
      divide evident secluded
      doughnut building crowded
      decided indict scolded
      develop secluded extend
        crowded divide
        scolded decided
        radio correspond
        folder  
        decided  
    3. How is [d] spelled in all of these words? <d>. More than nine times out of ten [d] is spelled that way.

    Explore More

    Crosswords. The following crossword puzzle contains only words from this lesson.

    Across

    1. Fluid

    6. A structure

    8. Something owed

    10. Confuse

    12. Bawled out

    Down

    2. Grow

    3. A communication device

    4. A round treat

    5. Killing oneself

    7. Hard, not easy

    9. Stretch

    11. Officially accuse

    Show Answer

    Across

    1. LIQUID—Fluid

    6. BUILDING—A structure

    8. DEBT—Something owed

    10. BEWILDER—Confuse

    12. SCOLDED—Bawled out

    Down

    2. DEVELOP—Grow

    3. RADIO—A communication device

    4. DOUGHNUT—A round treat

    5. SUICIDE—Killing oneself

    7. DIFFICULT—Hard, not easy

    9. EXTEND—Stretch

    11. INDICT—Officially accuse

    Some Words with [d] Spelled <dd>

    Sometimes we get double consonants like <dd> because of simple addition. Simple addition is when an element that starts with a certain consonant comes right after an element that ends with that same consonant. Another way that we get <dd> is due to twinning or doubling, where an extra consonant is added to keep a vowel short when adding an ending.

    Examples

    In the following words, the sound [d] is spelled <dd> due to what?

    shredded - twinning

    address - simple addition

    nodding - twinning

    Review

    1. Underline the letters that spell [d] in the following words.
      \begin{align*}
          & \text{addition} && \text{address} && \text{nodding} && \text{headdress}\\
          & \text{sudden} && \text{ladder} && \text{pudding} && \text{wedding}\\
          & \text{shredded} && \text{sadden} && \text{redder} && \text{goddess}\\
          & \text{eddy} && \text{oddest} && \text{forbidden} && \text{goddaughter}\\
          & \text{shudder} && \text{muddy} && \text{addict} && \text{granddad}
      \end{align*}
    2. In the twenty words above there are six words that have <dd> because of simple addition. Three of the six are compound words and three of them contain the prefix ad-. Write the six below and analyze them enough to show where the <dd> comes from in each one.
      Word = Analysis
      addition ad + dition
        =
        =
        =
        =
        =
    3. You twin the final consonant of a free stem that has one vowel sound and ends __________ when you add a suffix that starts with a __________. You twin the final consonant of a free stem that has two vowel sounds when you add a suffix that starts with a __________ if the stem ends __________ and has stress on its __________ vowel before and after you add the suffix.
    4. Eight of the twenty words above have <dd> in them because of twinning. Find them and write them below. Then analyze each one to show how the twinning leads to the <dd>.
      Word = Analysis
      shredded shred + d + ed
        =
        =
        =
        =
        =
        =
        =
    5. In the VCC pattern the vowel is usually ____________.

    6. Write the six remaining words contain <dd> because of the VCC pattern in the table.

    Show Answer
    1. \begin{align*}
          &  a\underline{dd}ition  &&  a\underline{dd}ress  &&  no\underline{dd}ing  &&  hea\underline{dd}ress \\
          &  su\underline{dd}en  &&  la\underline{dd}er  &&  pu\underline{dd}ing  &&  we\underline{dd}ing \\
          &  shre\underline{dd}ed  &&  sa\underline{dd}en  &&  re\underline{dd}er  &&  go\underline{dd}ess \\
          &  e\underline{dd}y  &&  o\underline{dd}est  &&  forbi\underline{dd}en  &&  go\underline{dd}aughter \\
          &  shu\underline{dd}er  &&  mu\underline{dd}y  &&  a\underline{dd}ict  &&  gran\underline{dd}a\underline{d}
      \end{align*}
    2. Word = Analysis
      addition = ad + dition
      address = ad + dress
      addict = ad + dict
      headdress = head + dress
      goddaughter = god + daughter
      granddad = grand + dad
    3. You twin the final consonant of a free stem that has one vowel sound and ends CVC when you add a suffix that starts with a vowel. You twin the final consonant of a free stem that has two vowel sounds when you add a suffix that starts with a vowel if the stem ends CVC and has stress on its final vowel before and after you add the suffix.

    4. Word = Analysis
      shredded = shred + d + ed
      sadden = sad + d + en
      muddy = mud + d + y
      nodding = nod + d + ing
      redder = red + d + er
      forbidden = forbid + d + en
      wedding = wed + d + ing
      goddess = god + d + ess
    5. In the VCC pattern the vowel is usually short.
    6. Write the six remaining words contain <dd> because of the VCC pattern in the table.
      \begin{align*}
          & \text{sudden} && \text{shudder} && \text{oddest}\\
          & \text{eddy} && \text{ladder} && \text{pudding}
      \end{align*}
     

    Words with <dle> and <ddle>

    When there is an <le> right after a [d] and a consonant or long vowel sound right in front of it, the [d] is spelled <d>. But when there is an <le> right after a [d] and a short vowel sound right in front of it, the [d] is spelled <dd>.

    Examples

    The following words are spelled <le> after <d>.

    noodle     swindle     needle     candle     spindle

    The following words are spelled <le> after <dd>.

    griddle     cuddle     peddle     saddle     riddle

    Review

    1. Read these words aloud carefully and sort them into the table below.
      \begin{align*}
          & \text{huddle} && \text{cradle} && \text{saddle} && \text{handle}\\
          & \text{eddies} && \text{needle} && \text{meddle} && \text{suddenness}\\
          & \text{pudding} && \text{addict} && \text{candle} && \text{middle}\\
          & \text{odds} && \text{kindle} && \text{bundle} && \text{shuddered}\\
          & \text{poodle} && \text{idle} && \text{riddle} && \text{noodle}
      \end{align*}
      Words that end <dle> or <ddle> Words that do not end <dle> or <ddle>
             
             
             
             
             
             
      Now, look at the six words that do not end <dle> or <ddle>. Mark the first vowel in each of them with a ‘v.’ Then mark the next two letters, either ‘c’ or ‘v.’
    2. You should find one pattern. What pattern is it? _________. According to this pattern, should the first vowel be long or should it be short? _________. In these six words is the first vowel always long or is it short? ___________
    3. In the VCCle pattern the vowel is _________, but in the VCle pattern the vowel is _________.
    4. Now sort the fourteen words that end either <dle> or <ddle> into the following matrix.
      Words in which the [d] comes right after a ...
        consonant sound long vowel sound short vowel sound
      Words with [d] spelled <d>      
      Words with [d] spelled <dd>      
    Show Answer
    1. Words that end <dle> or <ddle> Words that do not end <dle> or <ddle>
      huddle saddle riddle

      eddies

      vcc

      poodle meddle handle

      pudding

      vcc

      cradle candle middle

      odds

      vcc

      needle bundle noodle

      addict

      vcc

      kindle    

      suddenness

      vcc

      idle    

      shuddered

      vcc

    2. You should find one pattern. What pattern is it? VCC. According to this pattern, should the first vowel be long or should it be short? short In these six words is the first vowel always long or is it short? short
    3. In the VCCle pattern the vowel is short, but in the VCle pattern the vowel is long.
    4. Words in which the [d] comes right after a ...
        consonant sound long vowel sound short vowel sound
      Words with [d] spelled <d>

      kindle

      candle

      bundle

      handle

      poodle

      cradle

      needle

      idle

      noodle

       
      Words with [d] spelled <dd>    

      huddle

      saddle

      meddle

      riddle

      middle

    [d] Spelled <ed>

    The suffix -ed adds the meanings “in the past” and “action completed” to verbs. It is pronounced different ways at the end of different verbs.

    Examples

    For example, in dished the -ed is pronounced [t], and in adopted it is pronounced [id]; in shoveled it is pronounced [d].

    Review

    1. Pronounce each of the following past tense verbs carefully. Listen to how the -ed is pronounced in them. Then sort them into the three groups indicated below:
      \begin{align*}
          & \text{radioed} && \text{elapsed} && \text{disappointed} && \text{knocked}\\
          & \text{settled} && \text{huddled} && \text{collected} && \text{crowded}\\
          & \text{divided} && \text{disturbed} && \text{attended} && \text{sobbed}\\
          & \text{pronounced} && \text{addressed} && \text{scribbled} && \text{employed}\\
          & \text{grouped} && \text{governed} && \text{acknowledged} && \text{disarmed}
      \end{align*}

      Words in which the -ed is pronounced ...
      [t] [id] [d] [d]
             
             
             
             
             
    2. In many past tense verbs -ed is pronounced [d]. So at the end of many past tense verbs [d] is spelled _____. So far you have seen three different ways of spelling [d]. They are _________, _________, and _________.

    3. In four words [d] is spelled <ld>. The word solder is pronounced [sodər]. Hundreds of years ago the <l> was pronounced, but not anymore. Solder comes from the Latin word solidus, which means “solid.” Our solid comes from this same solidus. So solder and solid are close relatives: When you solder something, you make it solid. And notice that you can hear the <l> in solid, though not in solder, so in solder [d] is spelled <ld>.
      How is [d] spelled in couldshould, and would? _________. For hundreds of years the <l> in these words was pronounced too, but in time people stopped pronouncing it.

    4. Except for the words _______, _______, _______, and _______, the sound [d] is spelled either _______, _______, or _______.

    Show Answer
    1. Words in which the -ed is pronounced ...
      [t] [id] [d] [d]
      pronounced divided radioed scribbled
      grouped disappointed settled acknowledged
      elapsed collected huddled sobbed
      addressed attended disturbed employed
      knocked crowded governed disarmed
    2. In many past tense verbs -ed is pronounced [d]. So at the end of many past tense verbs [d] is spelled <ed>. So far you have seen three different ways of spelling [d]. They are <d><dd>, and <ed>.

    3. In four words [d] is spelled <ld>. The word solder is pronounced [sodər]. Hundreds of years ago the <l> was pronounced, but not anymore. Solder comes from the Latin word solidus, which means “solid.” Our solid comes from this same solidus. So solder and solid are close relatives: When you solder something, you make it solid. And notice that you can hear the <l> in solid, though not in solder, so in solder [d] is spelled <ld>.
      How is [d] spelled in couldshould, and would<ld>. For hundreds of years the <l> in these words was pronounced too, but in time people stopped pronouncing it.

    4. Except for the words soldercouldshould, and would, the sound [d] is spelled either <d><dd>, or <ed>.

    Explore More

    Word Find. This Find contains twenty-two of the words you have been working with that contain the sound [d]. As you find them, sort them into the groups described below the Find:

    Words with the sound [d] spelled
    <d> <dd> <ed> <ld>
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
           
    Show Answer
    Words with the sound [d] spelled
    <d> <dd> <ed> <ld>
    disturbed sudden disturbed would
    development addict settled could
    extend eddy favored should
    idle forbidden employed  
    liquid middle    
    debt addition    
    bewilder wedding    
    evident      
    handle      

    Dropping the Sound <d>

    There is one time when the <d> spelling of [d] may be hard to remember - because sometimes it is hard to hear the [d] sound at all. Sometimes a <d> may not be pronounced if it comes at the end of its element, and it has an <n> in front of it and a consonant after it, especially if that consonant is the letter <s>.

    Examples

    For example, in the word grandmother some people pronounce the <d>, but most people usually do not. Most often it sounds like [granmuthər], with no [d] sound.

    Other examples include the words handkerchief and handsome.

    The word handkerchief analyzes to hand “hand” + kerchief “cover for the head.” The stem kerchief analyzes in turn to ker + chiefKer is all that is left of older version of the word coverChief means “head. (Note that the words chief and chef are very closely related.)

    The word handsome also contains hand meaning “hand.” The suffix -some forms adjectives. Originally handsome meant “easy to handle, ready at hand.” Then it came to mean “handy, convenient, suitable” and later “of fair size or amount” (as in the phrase a handsome reward). Finally it came to its most common modern meaning: “having a fine form or figure, good looking.”

    Review

    Read aloud the words in the Word column. Listen for whether or not you pronounce the <d>s. Sometimes you may hear a clear [d]; sometimes the <d> may be pronounced more like [t]; sometimes it may be left out completely. Don't be surprised if you hear different people saying the <d>s in these words differently. We're allowed a certain amount of choice here. Analyze the words as instructed in the Analysis column.

    Word Analysis
    1. friendship Noun + suffix = friend + ship
    2. surrounds Verb + suffix =
    3. handkerchief Noun + noun =
    4. comprehends Verb + suffix =
    5. handful Noun + suffix =
    6. grounds Noun + suffix =
    7. thousands Noun + suffix =
    8. bands Noun + suffix =
    9. grandfather Adjective + noun =
    10. spends Verb + suffix =
    11. handsome Noun + suffix =
    12. husbands Noun + suffix =
    13. landscape Noun + suffix =
    14. handsful Noun + suffix + suffix =
    15. suspends Verb + suffix =
    16. weekends Noun + suffix + suffix =
    17. grandma Adjective + noun =
    18. corresponds Verb + suffix =
    19. islands Noun + suffix =
    20. attends Verb + suffix =
    21. sounds Verb + suffix =
    22. playgrounds Noun + suffix =
    23. bookends Noun + noun + suffix =

    24. In all of these words, where is the <d> in its element (at the front, the end, or in the middle)? _______. What letter is right in front of the <d> in each case? ________. Is there a vowel after the <d> each time, or is it a consonant? ________. What letter usually comes right after the <d> in these words? ________.

    Show Answer
    Word Analysis = Analysis
    1. friendship Noun + suffix friend + ship
    2. surrounds Verb + suffix surround + s
    3. handkerchief Noun + noun hand + kerchief
    4. comprehends Verb + suffix comprehend + s
    5. handful Noun + suffix hand + ful
    6. grounds Noun + suffix ground + s
    7. thousands Noun + suffix thousand + s
    8. bands Noun + suffix band + s
    9. grandfather Adjective + noun grand + father
    10. spends Verb + suffix spend + s
    11. handsome Noun + suffix hand + some
    12. husbands Noun + suffix husband + s
    13. landscape Noun + suffix land + scape
    14. handsful Noun + suffix1 + suffix2 hand + s + ful
    15. suspends Verb + suffix suspend + s
    16. weekends Noun1 + suffix2 + suffix week + end + s
    17. grandma Adjective + noun grand + ma
    18. corresponds Verb + suffix correspond + s
    19. islands Noun + suffix island + s
    20. attends Verb + suffix attend + s
    21. sounds Verb + suffix sound + s
    22. playgrounds Noun1 + noun2 + suffix play + ground + s
    23. bookends Noun1 + noun2 + suffix book + end + s

    24. In all of these words, where is the <d> in its element (at the front, the end, or in the middle)? at the end. What letter is right in front of the <d> in each case? <n>. Is there a vowel after the <d> each time, or is it a consonant? consonant. What letter usually comes right after the <d> in these words? <s>.

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