Skip to main content
K12 LibreTexts

2.9: The Consonant Sound [j]

  • Page ID
    7058
  • Overview of the Consonant Sound [j]

    Three different ways of spelling [j] are <g>, <j>, and <dg>.

    Examples

    You can hear the sound [j] at the beginning and end of judge.

    Review

    1. Underline the letters that spell [j] in these words. Sometimes [j] is spelled <j>, sometimes <g>, sometimes <dg>. Be careful: One word has the sound [j] spelled two different ways.
      \begin{align*} &\text{pager} && \text{magic} && \text{general} && \text{gym}\\ &\text{enjoy} && \text{joined} && \text{bridge} && \text{danger}\\ &\text{orange} &&\text{language} && \text{judge} && \text{huge}\end{align*}
    2. Use the twelve words above to answer the following questions.
      Spelling #1: [j] is spelled _______ eight times;
      Spelling #2: [j] is spelled _______ three times;
      Spelling #3: [j] is spelled _______ twice.
    3. Sort the twelve words into these three groups.
      Words with ...
      Spelling #1 Spelling #1 Spelling #2 Spelling #3
             
             
             
             
    4. Three ways to spell [j] are _______, _______, and _______.
    Show Answer
    1. \begin{align*} & pa \underline{g}er  &&  ma \underline{g}ic  &&  general  &&   \underline{g}ym \\ & en \underline{j}oy  &&   \underline{j}oined  &&  brid \underline{g}e  &&  dan \underline{g}er \\ & oran \underline{g}e  && langua \underline{g}e  &&   \underline{j}ud \underline{g}e  &&  hu \underline{g}e \end{align*}
    2. In these twelve words:
      Spelling #1: [j] is spelled <g> eight times;
      Spelling #2: [j] is spelled <j> three times;
      Spelling #3: [j] is spelled <dg> twice.

    3. Words with ...
      Spelling #1 Spelling #1 Spelling #2 Spelling #3
      large general enjoy bridge
      orange gym joined judge
      magic danger judge  
      language huge    
    4. Three ways to spell [j] are <g><j>, and <dg>.

    Explore More

    The following is a review of other consonant sounds.

    1. Underline the letters that spell [p, b, t, d] in the following words.
    2. \begin{align*} &\text{fatter} && \text{hardest} && \text{kinder} && \text{numbers}\\ &\text{opening} && \text{water} && \text{system} && \text{spotter}\\ &\text{started} &&\text{simple} && \text{country} && \text{zipper}\\ &\text{stopping} &&\text{ribbon} && \text{bubble} && \text{suddenly}\\ &\text{middle} && \text{beginner} && \text{around} && \text{children}\end{align*}
    3. Now sort the words into these groups. Be careful! Some words go into more than one group.
      Words with ...
      [p] [b] [t] [d]
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
    4. Two ways to spell [p] are _______ and _______, and two ways to spell [b] are _______ and _______.
    5. Two ways to spell [t] are _______ and _______, and two ways to spell [d] are _______ and _______.
    Show Answer
    1. \begin{align*} & fa\underline{tt}er  &&  har\underline{d}es\underline{t}  &&  kin\underline{d}er  &&  num\underline{b}ers \\ & o\underline{p}ening  &&  water  &&  sys\underline{t}em  &&  spo\underline{tt}er \\ & s\underline{t}ar\underline{t}e\underline{d}  && sim\underline{p}le  &&  coun\underline{t}ry  &&  zi\underline{pp}er \\ & s\underline{t}o\underline{pp}ing  && ri\underline{bb}on  &&  \underline{b}u\underline{bb}le  &&  su\underline{dd}enly \\ & mi\underline{dd}le  &&  \underline{b}eginner  &&  aroun\underline{d}  &&  chil\underline{d}ren \end{align*}
    2. Words with ...
      [p] [b] [t] [d]
      opening ribbon fatter started
      stopping beginner started middle
      simple bubble stopping hardest
      spotter numbers hardest kinder
      zipper   water around
          system suddenly
          country children
          spotter  
    3. Two ways to spell [p] are <p> and <pp>, and two ways to spell [b] are <b> and <bb>.
    4. Two ways to spell [t] are <t> and <tt>, and two ways to spell [d] are <d> and <dd>.

    Spelling [j]

    The <g> and <dg> spellings of [j] follow the normal pattern for soft <g>. They are always followed by either <e>, <i>, or <y>.

    The <dg> spelling is like a double soft <g>. It always has a short vowel in front of it, just as the VCC pattern calls for.

    Examples

    The sound [j] is spelled <j> in the following words: objectjustify, and judge

    The sound [j] is spelled <g> in the following words: packageenergy, and gym

    The sound [j] is spelled <dg> in the following words: acknowledgmentbudget, and judge

    The sound [j] is spelled <dj> in the following words: adjective and adjustment

    Review

    1. You can hear the sound [j] at the beginning and end of the word judge. Underline the letters that spell [j]. Don't include any silent final <e>s in your underlining. You should find four different spellings.
    2. \begin{align*} &\text{object} && \text{juicy} && \text{judgment} && \text{adjust}\\ &\text{acknowledge} && \text{majestic} && \text{pajamas} && \text{justify}\\ &\text{budget} &&\text{courageous} && \text{hygiene} && \text{energy}\\ &\text{gymnasium} &&\text{grudge} && \text{dejected} && \text{prejudice}\\ &\text{majesty} &&\text{gadget} && \text{oxygen} && \text{digestion}\\ &\text{wreckage} &&\text{adjective} && \text{journalist} && \text{messenger}\end{align*}
    3. Sort the above words into these four groups.
      Words in which [j] is spelled ...
      <j> <g> <dg> <dj>
                 
                 
                 
                 
                 
    4. Look at the words in which [j] is spelled either <g> or <dg>. Sort them into the following three groups.
      Words in which the <g> or <dg> is followed by ...
      an <e> an <i> a <y>
             
             
             
             
             
    5. When there is a long vowel right in front of the [j], how is the [j] spelled, <g> or <dg>? _______. When there is a short vowel right in front of the [j], how is the [j] spelled, <g> or <dg>? _______. When the [j] is spelled <g>, which letters always follow the <g>?_______, _______, or _______. Does the spelling <j> usually come at the front, in the middle, or at the end of an element? __________. Does <dg> ever come at the front of a word? _______.
    6. The <dj> spelling of [j] is very rare. Find the two words from the list above in which [j] is spelled <dj>. Analyze them into prefix plus stem to show where the <dj> comes from.
    7. Four ways of spelling [j] are _______, _______, _______, and _______.
    Show Answer
    1. \begin{align*} & ob\underline{j}ect  &&  \underline{j}uicy  &&  \underline{j}u\underline{dg}ment  &&  a\underline{dj}ust \\ & acknowle\underline{dg}e  &&  ma\underline{j}estic  &&  pa\underline{j}amas  &&  \underline{j}ustify \\ & bu\underline{dg}et  && coura\underline{g}eous  &&  hy\underline{g}iene  &&  ener\underline{g}y \\ & \underline{g}ymnasium  && gru\underline{dg}e  &&  de\underline{j}ected  &&  pre\underline{j}udice \\ & ma\underline{j}estic  && ga\underline{dg}et  &&  oxy\underline{g}en  &&  di\underline{g}estion \\ & wrecka\underline{g}e  && a\underline{dj}ective  &&  \underline{j}ournalist  &&  messen\underline{g}er \end{align*}
    2. Words in which [j] is spelled ...
      <j> <g> <dg> <dj>
      object pajamas gymnasium energy acknowledge adjective
      majesty dejected wreckage digestion budget adjust
      juicy journalist courageous messenger grudge  
      majestic justify hygiene   gadget  
      judgment prejudice oxygen   judgment  
    3. Words in which the <g> or <dg> is followed by ...
      an <e> an <i> a <y>
      acknowledge judgment hygiene gymnasium
      budget oxygen grudging energy
      wreckage digestion    
      courageous messenger    
      gadget      
    4. When there is a long vowel right in front of the [j], how is the [j] spelled, <g> or <dg>? <g>. When there is a short vowel right in front of the [j], how is the [j] spelled, <g> or <dg>? <dg>. When the [j] is spelled <g>, which letters always follow the <g>? <e><i>, or <y> . Does the spelling <j> usually come at the front, in the middle, or at the end of an element? At the front. Does <dg> ever come at the front of a word? No.

    5. Word with [j] spelled <dj> Analysis: Prefix + stem
      adjective ad + jective
      adjust ad + just
    6. Four ways of spelling [j] are <j><g><dg>, and <dj>.

    [j] Spelled <d>

    Another way of spelling [j], that is <d>, is due to the same kind of palatalization that we encounter in the various spellings of [sh]. Thus, the sound [j] can be spelled <j>, <g>, <dg>, <dj>, and <d>.

    Examples

    <j> jumping
    <g> hygiene
    <dg> smudge
    <dj> adjust
    <d> gradual

    Review

    1. Underline the letters that spell [j] in the following words.
    2. \begin{align*} &\text{gradual} && \text{schedule} && \text{procedure} && \text{educate}\\ &\text{pendulum} && \text{graduate} && \text{individual} && \text{arduous}\\ &\text{fraudulent} &&\text{residual} && \text{modulation} && \text{assiduous}\end{align*}
    3. What letter always follows the <d> in these words? _____.
    4. Underline the letters that spell [j] in the following three words.
      \begin{align*} &\text{cordial} && \text{grandeur} && \text{soldier}\end{align*}
    5. How does the setting in which <d> spells [j] in these three words differ from the setting in part 1 above?
    6. Sort the following words into the two groups defined below.
      \begin{align*} &\text{graded} && \text{fraudulently} && \text{modulated} && \text{educated}\\ &\text{gradual} && \text{defrauded} && \text{proceeded} && \text{reduced}\\ &\text{pendulum} &&\text{resident} && \text{individual} && \text{arduous}\\ &\text{dependent} &&\text{residual} && \text{undivided} && \text{yardage}\end{align*}  
      [j] [d]
             
             
             
             
             
    7. Write the five different ways to spell [j] in the left-hand column below, and in the right-hand column write a word that contains each of the spellings.
        Spellings of [j] Words that Contain the Spellings
      #1    
      #2    
      #3    
      #4    
      #5    
    Show Answer
    1. \begin{align*} & gra\underline{d}ual  &&  sche\underline{d}ule  &&  proce\underline{d}ure  &&  e\underline{d}ucate \\ & pen\underline{d}ulum  &&  gra\underline{d}uate  &&  indivi\underline{d}ual  &&  ar\underline{d}uous \\ & frau\underline{d}ulent  && resi\underline{d}ual  &&  mo\underline{d}ulation  &&  assi\underline{d}uous \end{align*}

    2. What letter always follows the <d> in these words? <u>.

    3. Underline the letters that spell [j] in the following three words.
      \begin{align*} & cor\underline{d}ial  &&  gran\underline{d}eur  &&  sol\underline{d}ier \end{align*}

    4. How does the setting in which <d> spells [j] in these three words differ from the setting in part 1 above? These words have <i> or <eu> following the <d> while the words in Item 1 have <u> following the <d>.

    5. Words in which <d> spells ...
      [j] [d]
      gradual modulate graded individual
      pendulum individual dependent undivided
      fraudulently educated defrauded educated
      residual arduous resident reduced
          proceeded yardage
    6.   Spellings of [j] Words that Contain the Spellings
      #1 <j> judge
      #2 <g> hygiene
      #3 <dg> fudge
      #4 <dj> adjective
      #5 <d> gradual

     

     

    • Was this article helpful?