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2.13: The Consonant Sound [s]

  • Page ID
    7062
  • Overview of the Consonant Sound [s]

    Three spellings of [s] are <s>, <c>, and <ss>.

    Examples

    You can hear the sound [s] at the beginning and end of stops.

    Review

    1. Underline the letters that spell [s]. It is spelled three different ways.
    2. \begin{align*} &\text{asked} && \text{across} && \text{single} && \text{once}\\ &\text{century} && \text{placing} && \text{icy} && \text{school}\\ &\text{coldest} &&\text{kiss} && \text{elephants} && \text{guess}\\\end{align*}
    3. Use the twelve words above to answer the following questions.
      Way #1: [s] is spelled ______ in five of the words.
      Way #2: [s] is spelled ______ in four of the words.
      Way #3: [s] is spelled ______ in three of the words.
    4. Sort the words into these three groups.
      Words with [s] spelled ...
      Way #1: Way #2: Way #3:
           
           
           
           
           
    Show Answer
    1. \begin{align*}& a\underline{s}ked && acro\underline{ss} && \underline{s}ingle && on\underline{c}e \\& \underline{c}entury && pla\underline{c}ing && i\underline{c}y && \underline{s}chool\\& colde\underline{s}t && ki\underline{ss} && elephant\underline{s} && gue\underline{ss}\end{align*}
    2. Way #1: [s] is spelled <s> in five of the words.
      Way #2: [s] is spelled <c> in four of the words.
      Way #3: [s] is spelled <ss> in three of the words.

    3. Words with [s] spelled ...
      Way #1: Way #2: Way #3:
      asked century across
      coldest placing kiss
      single icy guess
      elephants once  
      school    

    Explore More

    Word Squares. Each of the following words contains the sound [s], spelled either <s>, <ss>, or <c>. Fit the words into the squares. Be sure to cross off each one as you fit it into the Squares.

    Three-letter word: icy

    Four-letter words: kiss, once, song

    Five-letter words: asked, cents, guess, sound

    Six-letter words: across, resell, summer, thanks

    Seven-letter words: century, coldest, guessed, hardest, hottest, nearest, placing, spotted, started, starter, stopped, sunning, swimmer

    Eight-letter words: lightest, smallest, surprise

    Nine-letter words: elephants, hungriest, something

    Show Answer

    Spelling [s]

    About 97% of the time, [s] is spelled <s>, <c>, or <ss>.

    We often use a silent final <e> to insulate a single <s> so that it does not come at the end of a base and look like an -s suffix, as in words like lapse and tense (compared to the plurals laps and tens). Very few free bases end in [s] spelled with a single <s>. The only common ones are this, bus, us, gas, canvas, chaos, sis, plus, and yes.

    Usually when the <s> spelling of [s] comes at the very end of a word without the insulating final <e>, it is either the -s suffix, as in verbs like obstructs or plural nouns like contracts, or it is part of a suffix like -ous, -us, or -ics, as in words like courageousradius, and mathematics.

    Examples

    You can hear the sound [s] at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end of the word success. In success [s] is spelled three different ways: <s>, <c>, and <ss>.

    Review

    1. Underline the letters that spell [s] in each of the following words.
    2. \begin{align*} &\text{scratch} && \text{immigrants} && \text{smoky} && \text{situation}\\ &\text{asphalt} && \text{collapse} && \text{mathematics} && \text{radius}\\ &\text{impulse} &&\text{demonstrate} && \text{immense} && \text{analysis}\\ &\text{status} &&\text{schedule} && \text{scandal} && \text{distinguish}\\ &\text{adults} &&\text{dangerous} && \text{destroy} && \text{courageous}\\ &\text{dispatch} &&\text{desserts} && \text{congested} && \text{symphony}\\ &\text{instruction} &&\text{squeezed} && \text{seizure} && \text{emphasis}\end{align*}
    3. Sort the twenty-eight words into the following three groups. Some words go into more than one group.
      Words with [s] ...
      at the front in the middle at the end
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
    4. In all of these words [s] is spelled _______. The sound [s] is spelled this way about 75% of the time.
    5. The <s> spelling of [s] often occurs in consonant clusters - that is, with one or more consonants before or after it. Nineteen of the words above contain [s] spelled <s> in a consonant cluster. List the words in the blanks below and underline the cluster in each that contains the <s> that spells [s].
               
               
               
               

      Analyze the following words into stem plus suffix.

      Word = Stem + Suffix
      5. instructs = +
      6. courageous = +
      7. mathematics = +
      8. status = +
      9. scandalous = +
      10. adults = +
      11. immigrants = +
      12. dangerous = +
      13. chorus = +
      14. radius = +
    Show Answer
    1. \begin{align*}& \underline{s}cratch && immigrant\underline{s} && \underline{s}moky && \underline{s}ituation \\& a\underline{s}phalt && collap\underline{s}e && mathematic\underline{s} && radiu\underline{s}\\& impul\underline{s}e && demon\underline{s}trate && immen\underline{s}e && analy\underline{s}i\underline{s}\\& \underline{s}tatu\underline{s} && \underline{s}chedule && \underline{s}candal && di\underline{s}inguisted\\& adult\underline{s} && dangerou\underline{s} && de\underline{s}troy && courageou\underline{s}\\& di\underline{s}patch && dessert\underline{s} && conge\underline{s}ted && \underline{s}ymphony\\& in\underline{s}truction && \underline{s}queezed && \underline{s}eizure && empha\underline{s}i\underline{s} \end{align*}
    2. Words with [s]...
      at the front in the middle at the end
      sandwich asphalt impulse mathematics
      status dispatch status immense
      schedule instruction adults radius
      squeezed demonstrate immigrants analysis
      smoky destroy collapse courageous
      scandal congested dangerous emphasis
      seizure analysis desserts  
      situation distinguish    
      symphony emphasis    
    3. In all of these words [s] is spelled <s>. The sound [s] is spelled this way about 75% of the time.

    4. \begin{align*}& a\underline{sph}alt && di\underline{sp}atch && demon\underline{str}ate && mathemat\underline{ics} \\& conge\underline{st}ed && impu\underline{lse} && in\underline{str}uction && \underline{sch}edule\\& imme\underline{ns}e && di\underline{st}inguish && \underline{st}atus && immigra\underline{nts}\\& \underline{squ}eezed && \underline{sc}andal && adu\underline{lts} && colla\underline{pse}\\& \underline{sm}oky && de\underline{str}oy\end{align*}
      Word = Stem + Suffix
      5. instructs instruct s
      6. courageous courage ous
      7. mathematics mathematic s
      8. status

      = stat e

      us
      9. scandalous scandal ous
      10. adults adult s
      11. immigrants immigrant s
      12. dangerous danger ous
      13. chorus chor us
      14. radius radi us

    [s] Spelled <ss>

    The sound [s] is most often spelled <s>, but it is often spelled <ss>. 

    Review

    1. Underline the <ss> spellings of [s] in the following words.
      \begin{align*} & \text{abyss} && \text{assimilation} && \text{forgiveness} && \text{lioness} \\ & \text{associate} && \text{compress} && \text{caress} && \text{messenger} \\ & \text{bussing} && \text{neighborliness} && \text{gassed} && \text{dangerousness} \\ & \text{foreignness} && \text{ambassador} && \text{misscheduled} && \text{ misspelling} \\ & \text{dissatisfaction} && \text{processor} && \text{recess} && \text{dissension} \\ & \text{venerableness} && \text{missile} && \text{fussy} && \text{plusses}\end{align*}
    2. Two of the twenty-four words above have <ss> because of the full assimilation of the prefix ad- when it was added to a stem that started with <s>. List the two below in the Words column and then analyze them into prefix plus stem and show the full assimilation. As you do them check them off the list above:

      Words Anlysis: Prefix + Stem
      associate

      d+ s + sociate

         
    3. It is rare for <ss> to be due to twinning, for so few free bases end in a single <s>. But three of the twenty-four words above have <ss> due to twinning. List them below, analyze them to show the twinning, and cross them off of the list above:

      Word Analysis: Stem + Suffix
         
         
         
    4. Four of the twenty-four words have <ss> due to simple addition when the prefix dis- or mis- was added to a stem that started with <s>. List them below, analyze them to show the simple addition, and cross them off of the list above:

      Word Analysis: Prefix + Stem
         
         
         
         
    5. Although the sound [s] is never spelled <ss> at the beginning of words or elements, it is often spelled <ss> at the very end of words. Ten of the twenty-four words above end with <ss>. Five of them end with the same suffix. List those five below; analyze each into stem plus suffix or suffixes, and cross them of the list above:

      Word Analysis: Stem + Suffix(es)
         
         
         
         
         
    6. The remaining five words that end in <ss> all have short vowels right in front of the [s] so the <ss> spelling makes a regular VCC pattern. Write those five into the table below:

           
           
    7. Also, there should be five words remaining on your list of twenty-four words that contain <ss> in the middle; all five have short vowels in front of the [s]. Write the five words below and mark the VCC pattern in each one:

           
           
    Show Answer
    1. \begin{align*} & aby\underline{ss} && a\underline{ss}imilation && forgivene\underline{ss} && lione\underline{ss} \\ & a\underline{ss}ociate && compre\underline{ss} && care\underline{ss} && me\underline{ss}enger \\ & bu\underline{ss}ing && neighborline\underline{ss} && ga\underline{ss}ed && dangerousne\underline{ss} \\ & foreignne\underline{ss} && amba\underline{ss}ador && mi\underline{ss}cheduled && mi\underline{ss}pelling \\ & di\underline{ss}atisfaction && proce\underline{ss}or && rece\underline{ss} && di\underline{ss}ension \\ & venerablene\underline{ss} && mi\underline{ss}ile && fu\underline{ss}y && plu\underline{ss}es\end{align*}
    2. abyss assimilation forgiveness lioness
      associate compress caress messenger
      bussing neighborliness gassed dangerousness
      foreignness ambassador misscheduled misspelling
      dissatisfaction processor recess dissension
      venerableness missile fussy plusses
    3. Words Analysis: Prefix + Stem
      associate d + s + sociate
      assimilation d + s + similate
    4. Word Analysis: Stem + Suffix
      bussing bus + s + ing
      gassed gas + s + ed
      plusses plus + s + es
    5. Word Analysis: Prefix + Stem
      dissatisfaction dis + satisfaction
      misscheduled mis + scheduled
      misspelling mis + spelling
      dissension dis + sension
    6. Word Analysis: Stem + Suffix(es)
      foreignness foreign + ness
      venerableness venerable + ness
      neighborliness neighbor + l y + i + ness
      forgiveness forgive + ness
      dangerousness danger + ous + ness
    7. abyss success recess
      compress caress  
    8. ambassador missile messenger
      processor fussy  

    [s] Spelled <se> or <ss> at the End of Words

    In English we tend to avoid ending words with a single <s> that comes at the end of a base. To keep the single <s> from coming at the end, sometimes we double the <s>. Sometimes we add a final <e>.

    There are four very common bases that end <ss> and that often come at the end of words and free stems. Two of them are free bases: pass, with an original meaning “step, pace” and press, “press, squeeze.” Two of them are bound bases: cess, with an original meaning “go” and miss, with an original meaning “let go, cause to go.”

    Examples

    The final <s> is doubled in fuss and caress.

    A final <e> is added to intense and impulse. In words like intense and impulse the final <e> is not marking a long vowel, or a soft <c>, a soft <g> or a voiced <th>. It is just insulating the <s>, keeping it from coming at the end of the base and word.

    Review

    1. The following words all end with a base that itself ends with the sound [s]. In each case [s] is spelled <ss> or it is spelled <s> with an insulating final <e>. Words marked n. are nouns. Sort the words into the matrix.
      \begin{align*} &\text{intense} && \text{collapse} && \text{fuss} && \text{impulse} \\ &\text{abyss} && \text{excuse}(n.) && \text{reverse} && \text{purchase}\\ &\text{merchandise}(n.) && \text{dispense} && \text{caress} && \text{surpass} \\ &\text{false} && \text{release} && \text{abuse}(n.) && \text{geese} \\ &\text{dismiss} && \text{possess} && \text{immense} && \text{kiss}\end{align*}
      Words that end with [s] spelled...
         <s> with an insulating <e> <ss>

      Words that end with a base and have a stressed short vowel right in front of the final [s]

         

      Words that end with a base but do not have a stressed short vowel right in front of the final [s]

         
    2. In bases that end in an [s] sound spelled either <se> or <ss>, if there is a stressed short vowel sound right in front of the final [s], the [s] will be spelled _______. Otherwise, the [s] will be spelled _______ with an insulating _______.
      Each of the following words contains one of these four bases. Analyze the words into their elements as given in the Formula column: ‘P’ means “Prefix,” ‘FB’ means “Free Base,” ‘BB’ means “Bound Base,” and ‘S’ means “Suffix.”
      Word Formula Analysis
      3. impressively P + B + S1 + S2  
      4. submissive P + BB + S  
      5. accessed P + BB + S  
      6. surpassing P + FB + S  
      7. expressive P + FB + S  
      8. processor P + BB + S  
      9. missiles BB + S1 + S2  
      10. passage FB + S  
      11. excessive P + BB + S  
      12. abscessed P + BB + S  
      13. underpass P + FB  
      14. trespassing P + FB + S  
    Show Answer
    1. Words that end with [s] spelled...
         <s> with an insulating <e> <ss>

      Words that end with a base and have a stressed short vowel right in front of the final [s]

       

      abyss

      dismiss

      possess

      fuss

      caress

      surpass

      recess

      kiss

      Words that end with a base but do not have a stressed short vowel right in front of the final [s]

      intense

      merchandise

      false

      collapse

      excuse

      dispense

      release

      reverse

      abuse

      immense

      impulse

      purchase

       
    2. In bases that end in an [s] sound spelled either <se> or <ss>, if there is a stressed short vowel sound right in front of the final [s], the [s] will be spelled <ss>. Otherwise, the [s] will be spelled <s> with an insulating (silent final) <e>.

      Word Formula Analysis
      3. impressively P + B + S + S n + m + press + ive + ly
      4. submissive P + BB + S sub + miss + ive
      5. accessed P + BB + S d + c + cess + ed
      6. surpassing P + FB + S sur + pass + ing
      7. expressive P + FB + S ex + press + ive
      8. processor P + BB + S pro + cess + or
      9. missiles BB + S + S miss + ile + s
      10. passage FB + S pass + age
      11. excessive P + BB + S ex + cess + ive
      12. abscessed P + BB + S abs + cess + ed
      13. underpass P + FB under + pass
      14. trespassing P + FB + S tres + pass + ing

    Another Suffix with <ss>

    In many words the sound [s] is spelled <ss> in the suffixes -less and -ness. Another suffix that ends <ss> is -ess, which adds the meaning “female, feminine” to nouns: host “male” + ess = hostess “female”

    Sometimes, when -ess is added to a male noun that ends in the suffixes -er or -or, an unusual deletion occurs: waiter + ess = wait e r + ess = waitressactor + ess = act o r + ess = actress. In these cases when the -ess is added, we delete the <e> or <o> in front of the final <r>.

    Today we are less anxious to distinguish between males and females in our words than people were in the past. Some people find words ending in -ess to be offensive, and many of the -ess words are falling out of use. But we still do use a number of words that contain -ess and thus the <ss> spelling of [s].

    Examples

    In the male nouns ending in -er or -or that you have worked with so far, the -ess was added to the male noun. Sometimes, however, the -ess is added to the same stem to which the -er or -or is added to form the male noun, as with the stem sorcer.

    Stem Male Noun: Stem plus -er or -or Female Noun: Stem plus -ess
    sorcer sorcerer sorceress

    Review

    Analyze each of the following nouns into stem noun and suffix. Show any changes that took place when the suffix and stem combined:

    Noun = Stem Noun + Suffix
    1. hostess host ess
    2. lioness = +
    3. goddess = +
    4. princess = +
    5. countess = +
    6. poetess = +

    Now try some the other away around. Add the suffix -ess to the stem nouns to form new nouns, showing any changes:

    Stem Noun + Suffix = Noun
    7. priest ess priestess
    8. giant + =
    9. steward + =
    10. shepherd + =
    11. prince + =
    12. god + =

     Analyze the following words to show that change:

    Noun = Stem Noun + Suffix
    13. waitress wait e r ess
    14. actress act o r ess
    15. tigress = +
    16. huntress = +
    17. enchantress = +
    18. eldress = +
    19. tempter = +
    20. mister = +

    Write out the male and female nouns in the two right hand columns and be ready to talk about any changes that too place:

    Stem Male Noun: Stem plus -er or -or Female Noun: Stem plus -ess
    21. murder    
    22. govern    
    23. adventure    
    24. launder    
    Show Answer
    Noun = Stem Noun + Suffix
    1. hostess host ess
    2. lioness lion ess
    3. goddess god +d ess
    4. princess princ e ess
    5. countess count ess
    6. poetess poet ess
    Stem Noun + Suffix = Noun
    7. priest ess priestess
    8. giant ess giantess
    9. steward ess stewardess
    10. shepherd ess shepherdess
    11. prince ess princess
    12. god +d ess goddess
    Noun = Stem Noun + Suffix
    13. waitress wait e r ess
    14. actress act o r ess
    15. tigress tig e r ess
    16. huntress hunt e r ess
    17. enchantress enchant e r ess
    18. eldress eld e r ess
    19. tempteress tempt e r ess
    20. misteress mist e r ess
    Stem Male Noun Stem plus -er or -or Female Noun Stem plus -ess
    21. murder murderer murderess
    22. govern governor governess
    23. adventure adventurer adventuress
    24. launder launderer laundress

    [s] Spelled <c> or <sc>

    The sound [s] is spelled <s> or <ss> about eight times out of ten. The rest of the time it is usually spelled <c>.

    The letter <c> spells the sound [s] only when it is followed by the letters <e>, <i>, or <y>. When the letter <c> spells the sound [s], it is called soft <c>.

    Examples

    Whenever <c> spells [s], there will be an <e>, <i>, or <y> following it. But the problem is that often [s] is spelled with an <s> with an <e>, <i>, or <y> after it, too. Read the following pairs of words aloud and look at how [s] is spelled in each of them:

    \begin{align*} &\text{sell} && \text{cell}\\ &\text{sent} && \text{cent}\\ &\text{serial} && \text{cereal}\\ &\text{site} && \text{cite}\\ &\text{symbol} && \text{cymbal}\end{align*}

    Words like the ones in each of these pairs are called homophones. Homo- means “same,” and phone means “sound.” Homophones are two or more words that have the same sound but different meanings and spellings:

    \begin{align*} &\text{sent} && \text{cent}\\ &\text{scent}\\ &\text{site} && \text{cite}\\ &\text{sight}\end{align*}

    Review

    1. Underline the letters that spell [s] is each of the following words:
      \begin{align*} &\text{perceive} && \text{certainty} && \text{emergency} &&\text{reduce}\\ &\text{icily} && \text{prejudice} && \text{deception} && \text{icy}\\ &\text{introducing} && \text{dependence} &&\text{conscience} &&\text{criticism}\\ &\text{receipt} && \text{balance} && \text{produce} && \text{ceiling}\\ &\text{citizen} && \text{decision} && \text{secession} && \text{accelerate}\\ &\text{advancing} && \text{juicy} && \text{assurance} &&\text{piece}\end{align*}
    2. Sort the words into these three groups:
      Words with <c> followed by an ...
      <e> <i> <y>
             
             
             
             
             
             
             
    3. The <sc> spelling of [s] is very rare, but it does occur in a few common words. Underline all of the different spellings of [s] in the words below:
      \begin{align*} &\text{susceptible} && \text{scissors} && \text{descent} && \text{science}\\ &\text{abscess} && \text{discipline} && \text{ascend} && \text{scenic}\\ &\text{scent} && \text{ascertain} && \text{fascinate} && \text{scythe}\\ &\text{scientific} && \text{condescension} && \text{discern} && \text{fluorescent}\end{align*}
    4. Now sort the sixteen words into these three groups:
      Words in which <sc> is followed by an ...
      <e> <i> <y>
             
             
             
             
             
    5. Four ways of spelling [s] are _______, _______, _______, and _______.
    Show Answer
    1. \begin{align*}& per\underline{c}eive && \underline{c}ertainty && emergen\underline{c}y && redu\underline{c}e \\& i\underline{c}ily && prejudi\underline{c}e && de\underline{c}eption && i\underline{c}y \\& introdu\underline{c}ing && dependen\underline{c}e && conscien\underline{c}e && criti\underline{c}ism \\& re\underline{c}eipt && balan\underline{c}e && produ\underline{c}e && \underline{c}eiling \\& \underline{c}itizen && de\underline{c}ision && se\underline{c}ession && ac\underline{c}elerate \\& advan\underline{c}ing && jui\underline{c}y && assuran\underline{c}e && pie\underline{c}e\end{align*}
    2. Words with <c> followed by an ...
      <e> <i> <y>
      perceive conscience icily juicy
      receipt produce introducing emergency
      certainty assurance citizen icy
      dependence reduce advancing  
      balance ceiling decision  
      secession accelerate piece  
      deception prejudice criticism  
    3. \begin{align*}& \underline{s}u\underline{sc}eptible && \underline{sc}issors && de\underline{sc}ent && \underline{sc}ien\underline{c}e \\& ab\underline{sc}e\underline{ss} && di\underline{sc}ipline && a\underline{sc}end && \underline{sc}enic \\& \underline{sc}ent && a\underline{sc}ertain && fa\underline{sc}inate && \underline{sc}ythe \\& \underline{sc}ientific && conde\underline{sc}ension && di\underline{sc}ern && fluore\underline{sc}ent\end{align*}
    4. Words in which <sc> is followed by an ...
      <e> <i> <y>
      susceptible descent scientific scythe
      abscess ascend scissors  
      scent discern discipline  
      ascertain scenic fascinate  
      condescension fluorescent science  
    5. Four ways of spelling [s] are <s> , <ss><c>, and <sc>.

    Rare Spellings of [s]

    The sound [s] is spelled <s>, <ss>, or <c> just about all of the time. Occasionally it is spelled <sc>. On rare occasions, [s] is spelled <st>, <ps>, <sw>, and <z>.

    Examples

    In words like castle and fasten, where there is an <le> or an <en> right after the <st>, the <t> is not pronounced. It was pronounced a long time ago, but not anymore. Notice that we still pronounce the [t] in some words, like consistent or restless - though you can feel how hard it is to keep it in a word like restless. It is the loss of that earlier [t] that leads to the rare <st> spelling of [s].

    The <ps> in psalmpsychology, and psychiatrist comes from the Greek letter psi,Ψ, pronounced [sī]. When Greek words were taken into Latin and English, psi was represented by <ps>. The <p> was pronounced long ago, but gradually it came not to be, which leads to the rare <ps> spelling of [s].

    The <w> is not pronounced in answer because the [w] sound tends to drop out when it is weakly stressed and is followed by [r]. Notice that there is also no [w] in conquer, with a following [r], but there is one in conquest, with no following [r]. The same pattern holds in liquor and liquidAnswer is related to the word swear, in which the <w> is pronounced, because swear is usually stressed. Remembering the relationship with swear can help you remember to put the <w> in answer.

    The <w> is not pronounced in sword because [w] is sometimes lost in front of certain vowel sounds. This is the same thing that led to our dropping the [w] sound in two.

    The [s] in words like waltz and quartz comes from German. In German <z> is pronounced [ts]. So in these words [s] is spelled <z>.

    Review

    1. Underline the letters that spell [s]:
      \begin{align*} &\text{castle} && \text{psalm} && \text{psychology} && \text{fastener}\\ &\text{psychiatrist} && \text{listen} && \text{wrestle} && \text{moisten}\\ &\text{answer} && \text{sword} && \text{quartz} && \text{rustle}\\ &\text{hasten} && \text{waltz} && \text{whistle} && \text{thistle}\end{align*}
    2. You should have found four different spellings of [s]. The first spelling occurs in nine words. The second spelling occurs in three words, and the third and fourth spellings occur in two words each. Label the four groups below and sort the words into them:
      Words with [s] spelled ...
      <st> <ps> <sw> <z>
      castle fastener psychiatrist answer waltz
      hasten moisten psalm sword quartz
      listen rustler psychology    
      wrestle thistle      
      whistle        
    Show Answer
    1. \begin{align*}& ca\underline{st}le && \underline{ps}alm && \underline{ps}ychology && fa\underline{st}en\\ & \underline{ps}ychiatrist && li\underline{st}en && wre\underline{st}le && moi\underline{st}en\\ & an\underline{sw}er && \underline{sw}ord && quart\underline{z} && ru\underline{st}le\\& ha\underline{st}en && walt\underline{z} && whi\underline{st}le && thi\underline{st}le\end{align*}
    2. Words with [s] spelled ...
      <st> <ps> <sw> <z>
      castle fastener psychiatrist answer waltz
      hasten moisten psalm sword quartz
      listen rustler psychology    
      wrestle thistle      
      whistle        
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